Friday, December 9, 2011

Market Research Salary

Individuals that work in market research analyze what ideals and desires frequently motivate consumers to buy certain goods and avoid other goods. They often use sales statistics, feedback from consumer reports and surveys. This information helps companies design effective public relation campaigns, advertising and to choose only highly effective media. The results of the research can estimate the success of a product or a product line and help determine how a new product is designed.

Salary Overview

Salaries are affected by several factors such as the state and metropolitan location and what industry the company is part of. Generally, cities will pay more than towns in rural areas. The applicant’s level of education and training, professional certifications and membership to associations also can make an impact on how an employee is paid. For example, a market analyst that has a master’s degree is more likely to start at a higher salary than one with a bachelor’s or associate’s degree.

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the following salary information as of May in 2009.

A market research analyst’s median annual salary was $61,580. Individuals that worked in the scientific, technical and management consulting services earned highest pay of $64,360.

Individuals employed as marketing managers earned a median salary of $110,030. Managers of securities and commodity exchanges made the highest mean wage of $153, 060.

The median salary for survey researchers was $35,380. Those that worked in the science research and development service made the highest industrial wage of $62,280.

Job Description and Outlook

A market research analyst is responsible for determining the potential sales of a service or product. They analyze the statistical information of sales history to estimate future sales and then give management the data required to make an informed decision on how a service or product is created, priced, promoted and distributed.

A marketing manager supervises the design and development of a company’s general strategy for marketing. Their duties include keeping an eye the on progress of research performed externally and internally, how marketing promotions are used, designing new products for specific demographics and implementing advertising strategies. Often, marketing managers supervise market research analysts and other research employees. They also work with various managers to ensure a coordinated strategy for producing new items and promoting current products to consumers.


Business Administration Salary

Business administration managers direct, coordinate and plan a variety of services that allow companies to operate in an efficient manner. They often coordinate facilities maintenance, space allocation and property procurement. They may also supervise centralized operation to ensure that the meet the needs and standards of different department within the organization. Business administration managers may also supervise telecommunications management, security and transportation services for the organization.

The duties for business administration managers tend to vary from company to company, depending on the size of the organization and the industry in which it works. Smaller companies may have only one business administration manager, which is called an office manager, while larger companies may have a team of business administration managers dividing the work load and specializing in different areas according to their level of expertise.

Salary Overview

Specific wages of business administration managers may vary greatly depending on the industry they work in, their specialty and the geographical area in which the business is located. Median income salaries of business administration managers in 2010 were $73,520. The middle fifty percent earned between $52,320 and $98,990. The bottom ten percent earned less than $38,460 per year and the upper ten percent earner more than $129,770 per year.

Business administration managers who managed corporations had a median income of $85,980 per year, those who managed hospitals had a median income of $77,860 per year and those who worked for local governments had a median income of $74,458 per year. Business administration managers who were employed by professional schools or universities had a median income of $72,460 per year, while those working for state governments had a median income of $65,690 per year.

Job Description and Outlook

Business administrators spend the majority of their days in an office environment, but may be required to make inspections around the building or grounds to supervise facilities that fall under their management duties. Half of business administrators work a forty hour work week, with the other half working considerably longer hours. In many cases, uncompensated overtime is expected of the business administrator in order to ensure that deadlines are met.

The exact duties of the business administrator may vary as significantly as the range of administrative services that they are expected to execute for the organization. Business administrators may serve as contract administrators, construction administrators or supply administrators depending on the organization where they are employed.

Employment in this field is expected to grow at the national average for most positions. Growth for the upper level jobs in this field will grow at a slower pace due to stiff competition. For the middle-tier positions, competition is lower so employment prospects will continue to look good for this level for the next ten years. Business administrators who specialize in facility management have the best employment prospects. Business administrators who are engaged in management consulting should also have a significant increase in their employment prospects due to companies outsourcing routine managerial duties.


Insurance Agent Salary

Insurance Agents are important for people who are looking to purchase life insurance. Life insurance plays an important role in a families financial future. In most households, it takes two people to bring in a sufficient income to help take care of a family. Life insurance can ease the minds of many people who work for a living to provide for their family. If anything happens to them, it could cause financial devastation to their families. Purchasing life insurance will ensure that if anything happens to them, their families will be well taken care of. Becoming a life insurance agent can be a rewarding career when a person knows that they are having a direct impact on helping to ease the minds of their clients. The salary for a life insurance agent can vary depending on the type of agent they are, and which company they work for. Many agents can make up to $45,000 a year.

Salary Overview

Insurance agents who work for a single Insurance carrier are called captive agents who work under contract. Captive agents can make up to $39,000 a year. Broker agents are freelance Insurance Agents who can work for several insurance carriers. They are mostly paid on commission depending on how much insurance they sell. They can make anywhere from $39,000 and up to $68,000 a year. Independent Insurance Sales Agents will also work on commission, and can make $26,000 a year or more. Depending on how much life insurance they sell, they can earn up to $110,000 a year. Much of the salary for independent agents rely on job performance. The person is in control of their own earning potential.

Job Description and Outlook

Life insurance will always be needed and counted on as long as there are people in the world. There will always be a high need for Insurance Agents. Insurance Agents sell several different life insurance policies to individuals and families who are looking for the right kind of coverage at a price that they can afford. The types of insurance that an agent can sell are life, long-term care, disability, health, and property and casualty insurance. Insurance Agents are also known as “producers,” and as producers of insurance, they must have skills and knowledge on how to present their material to potential clients that will create an interest for them to purchase insurance from them. Insurance can be sold to individuals, families, and businesses. The insurance will help to protect people from disasters, such as fires, theft, storms, vehicle accidents, and large financial losses from damage to property. For most businesses, the insurance can cover employees who have been injured on the job, medical malpractice, and liability claims.

An Insurance Agent will also be responsible for all of the paperwork, reports, and record keeping involved, as well as gaining new clients. Insurance Agents are also responsible for the clients they already have. If a client experiences a financial loss, they must help them to settle their claims.


Retail Marketing Salary

Retail marketing is the process of determining the value and demand for a product and the act of advertising a brand, product, or store to the general public. Candidates who work in retail marketing can be in either one of two categories: entry level or mid level account coordinators and account executives or higher level marketing account managers.

Employees in this industry coordinate research, develop marketing and advertising plans, assist with product development and assist with public relations duties and responsibilities. Retail Marketing candidates can either be employed directly by a large company, or work for a smaller firm under the direction of a VP candidate or other supervisor.

Salary Overview

In general, Retail marketing and associated industries has the potential to be a very lucrative business to work in. Entry Level and Mid level account coordinators, account executives and marketing specialists can make anywhere between $27,000 annually to $35,000 annually depending on the company or size of firm. In addition companies and firms or agencies also offer quarterly bonuses for excellent performance.

Marketing managers, due to extensive experience and amount of education can make anywhere between $50,000 and upwards to $80,000 or more annually with the possibility of also making commission, and quarterly bonuses.

Both Marketing managers, and marketing account coordinators, executives or specialists will also receive benefits such as medical, vacation, paid time off, sick leave and retirement options. Publicly traded companies may also offer stock purchase options to employees who can set aside a percentage of their net pay to purchase company stock at a discounted rate.

Job Description and Outlook

Retail marketing managers often take full direction of planing a company or client’s marketing strategy. Like lower and mid level employees, marketing managers conduct research, analyze return on investment or ROI data, respond to request for proposals and other tasks. Retail marketing manager are also given the task of delegating work to account coordinators, account executives or specialists. Entry level and mid level marketing specialists should have good computer skills as they may be required to constantly pull monthly expenditure reports, or conduct research on previous marketing campaigns.


Advertising Copywriter Salary

A career as an advertising copywriter is rewarding in many ways, including financially, personally, and professionally. Advertising copywriters enjoy some of the most diverse and sometimes relaxed work environments of any career, although, the competition and stress level can be extremely high in certain markets. While the traditional hubs of the entertainment industry have been the hot spots for high paying advertising jobs, advances in technology and mobile communications have opened up the market on a global scale. Over a third of all freelance writers are now self-employed and all signs point to the numbers rising steadily of the next eight to ten years.

Advertising copywriters can occupy a wide range of fields including fashion, television, radio, internet, films, and even sporting events. Copywriters can always look forward to demand in their field; the outlook for copywriters has steadily risen over several years to meet its average prediction, even during the recent troubling economic times. Unfortunately, with demand so high, the competition is fierce for many of the higher paying opportunities which require skill, creativity, and a great deal of experience.

Salary Overview

Entry level advertising copywriters can expect to begin their careers in the twenty-five to thirty-five thousand dollar a year range for their first few years on the job. While this is quite fine for an entry level position, the pay scale does grow quite rapidly commensurate with experience and education level. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics or BLS, the average pay for a salaried writer fluctuates between fifty thousand and seventy thousand dollars per year, and the high end of the pay scale is over one hundred thousand dollars per year. When combined with the growth predictions of the BLS, it all adds up to great pay now and well into the future.

Job Description and Outlook

An advertising copywriter’s career usually starts as an internship, assistant copywriter, or as a junior copywriter. As they learn the business, the latest techniques, and prove themselves by researching, editing, proofreading, and performing other tasks assisting the writing staff, they can move on to become a full copywriter. Advertising copywriters typically work with development teams composed of executives, graphic designers, art directors, and writers.


Accountant Salary

The role of an accountant is very important to the overall success of a firm, whether it is large or small. Their primary concern is to keep accurate records of a firm’s financial position. Accountants are primarily employed by corporations, small businesses, sole proprietors, and government agencies. The four major fields within the accounting industry are public accounting, internal auditing, management accounting, and government accounting.

The challenging workload and love for numbers draw many individuals into the accounting field. Accountants can work in a range of roles that span from broad to very specific. Depending on the role, there are different educational and work experience requirements. Accounting jobs that are more specialized tend to have greater requirements.

Salary Overview

In calculating an accountant’s salary, there are many factors that come into play. One of the major factors is education and experience. Accountants who hold graduate degrees are likely to earn more than those with only an undergraduate degree. Certified Public Accountants tend to earn the highest salaries.

Geographical location is also a determining factor when calculating the average salary of an accountant. The states that employ the most accountants are the District of Columbia, Delaware, Colorado, and New York.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median salary for accountants was $59,430 in 2008. The top 10% earned more than $102,380. The middle half of accountants earned between $45,900 and $78,210. The bottom 10% of accountants earned less than $36,720.

The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted a survey and reported that in 2009 the average starting salary for candidates with bachelor’s degrees was $48,993 and $49,786 for candidates with master’s degrees.

Accountants typically receive standard health, medical, and life insurance benefits. They also receive standard 401(k) and annual leave benefits. Accountants in high-level senior positions usually receive additional benefits, such as an expense account and the use of a company car.

Job Description and Outlook

Accountants are responsible for ensuring that a firm’s financial records are properly accounted for and that taxes are paid properly and on time. Majority of accounting work involves analyzing and reporting financial data.


Civil Engineer Salary

Civil engineering is one of the oldest of the engineering professions. Civil engineers are responsible for designing and overseeing the construction of infrastructure systems, highways, bridges, dams, water supply and sewage systems, airports, tunnels, and other projects. As current infrastructure needs replacement, there will be increasing demand for civil engineers. Areas of specialty may include environmental, highway systems, architectural, structural, marine, and geo-technical. Requiring at least a bachelor degree, civil engineers are well paid, with average salaries of above $70,000.

Civil engineering professionals are usually based in metropolitan centers, near the hubs of government, industry, and commerce. Job projects frequently involve travel and field work. Using the principles of civil engineering, they must take into accounts such variables as the materials involved in construction of the projects and local conditions including earthquakes, hurricanes, and climate and geologic variables.

Salary Overview

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational Employment Statistics from May 2009, the median salary for civil engineers is $76,590 or $36.82 per hour. In the lower 10th percentile, the annual salary is $49,620 and below, and in the top 10th percentile it is above $118,320.

Salary is based on education level with a bachelor degree being the minimum requirement. A 2009 survey indicated that an average entry-level position for a civil engineer with a bachelor degree is $52,000. Having a master degree or doctorate will increase the beginning salary. As experience is gained in the position, promotions to supervisory levels will have accompanying increases in salaries.

Salaries vary depending on the agency or company that the civil engineer is employed by. According to the BLS, the highest annual mean salaries are in the oil and gas extraction industries and other pipeline transportation industries with mean salaries at $107,430. The natural gas pipeline transportation industry has a mean salary of $96,690. Civil engineers working for state governments average $75,870, while federal positions average $88,040. Regional salaries vary with the District of Columbia, California, Texas, New Jersey, and Louisiana having the highest mean wages.

Training and Education Requirements

A minimum of a bachelor degree is required for entry-level civil engineering positions. Engineering programs at four year colleges require a strong basis in mathematics and science. Physics, geology, engineering science, and chemistry, along with supporting mathematics emphasizing geometry, statistics, trigonometry, and calculus are part of the core curriculum. The real-world application of the sciences and math will be used to solve specific problems related to commerce, industry, and infrastructure.

In addition to science and math, a strong emphasis on written and oral communication and technical writing is required. Engineers generally work on a team, deal with clients, and the public, requiring excellence in interpersonal communication skills, technical reports, and project presentation. Computer abilities are essential, with familiarity in drafting and schematics necessary. Consideration should be given to whether the graduate will immediately enter the workforce or continue in post-graduate studies.


Types Of Swimming Pool Covers

All across the United States, thousand and thousands of people own swimming pools. A swimming pool can provide a lot of fun and excitement, although it can also be dangerous. As many of us already know, it only takes a few seconds for a child to drown. To stop this from happening, you should use a pool cover to cover your swimming pool.
Along with protecting your swimming pool, covers have other uses as well. You can get solar powered pool covers, which will help to keep your water warm from the heat of the sun and protect your pool at the same time. For those looking for the best in protection, there are hard top swimming pool covers out there that are very sturdy and can keep just about anything out of your pool.
If you live in a warm climate area, you may want to get a basic plastic cover for your pool, which will keep it clean and protected. These covers will keep dust, dirt, and leaves out of your pool when you aren’t using it. Depending on where you live and what needs you have, the cover you need will vary.
Covers for your swimming pool come in several different choices as well, such as net, mesh, vinyl, and so on. Mesh pool covers are very popular, as they offer a tight fitting barrier which helps to keep your pool clean and free of debris, reduce maintenance, reduce evaporation, and keep your pool from unauthorized access.
Vinyl pool covers on the other hand, provide an amazing source of security. These pool covers operate via key, and help to keep debris out of your pool. They are also great for insulating and retaining heat, along with reducing any loss of chemicals. Vinyl is a very popular type of pool cover, being used by hundreds of thousands of pool owners.
No matter what type of pool cover you select, you can rest assured that it will do a lot in protecting your swimming pool. They don’t cost you a lot of money, yet they can go a long way in helping to prevent a child from accidental drowning. Depending on the type of swimming pool you have, the type of covers you have to choose from will vary.
From above ground pools to in ground pools, a swimming pool cover is something that you absolutely must have. There are many different types available, designed to fit all swimming pools. Before you buy a swimming pool cover you should first look at the package and make sure that it will work with your swimming pool. Some types of swimming pool covers may not work with your swimming pool – which makes it all the more important to double check.


Solutions for Swimming Pools

Outdoor Swimming Pools
Two basic alternatives are available for outdoor swimming pools: in-ground pools and above-ground pools. In-ground pools are set into the ground, thus requiring ground excavation. Only solutions for in-ground pools are presented here.
Main Components of in-ground Swimming Pools
The main components are:
Structure: floor / foundation; walls
Waterproofing element
Decorative finishing
Equipment and accessories
The structure itself is usually not sufficiently watertight, and therefore a waterproofing element is needed. In case of a conventionally built structure, this waterproofing element consists of a cementitious coating. It serves at the same time as a substrate for the decorative finish which is made up of ceramic tiles (or mosaic) or a decorative coating. Sheet membranes offer an alternative solution, combining the waterproofing and finishing function in a single element.
“Membranes”, consisting of thicker and more robust sheets, are installed in the traditional way, by cutting and seam welding on site. By contrast, “liners”, consisting of thinner sheets, are completely prefabricated to the size of each pool and then installed simply by attaching them onto profiles on the pool edge. They can also be easily replaced at the end of their service life.
Design Swimming Pools
Swimming pools must be designed by specialists in accordance with the state of the art, as well as standards and regulations in force.
Requirements for Swimming Pools
Esthetic Requirements
Free pool geometry
Wide choice of esthetic design possibilities (colours and patterns of pool surface)
Colour stability
Economical Requirements
Favorable investment cost
Ease of cleaning
Easy and cost-effective renewal possibilities
Durability Requirements
Mechanical (impact) resistance
Resistance to substrate cracking and movement
Frost resistance
Resistance to (chlorine; ozone) treated water
Resistance to sun cream
Resistance to algae and mold growth


Testing Concrete Aggregates

Here after is the specification for concrete aggregate testing in a hi-rise building construction.


Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates approved by the Engineer shall be kept on the Site and shall give a fair indication of the approved quality of the aggregate for comparison with the aggregate delivered during the course of the works.

Should a sample fail to comply with any of tests, the Engineer may at his own discretion reject the batch from which sample was taken, or order it to be washed and/or screened, or permit such to be used with variations in the proportions of the concrete mixes specified, all a the Contractor’s expense. Any batch of aggregate rejected by the Engineer shall be removed from the site forthwith and replaced entirely at the Contractor’s expense.

All sample and testing of aggregates shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM C33.

Preliminary Aggregate Tests

As soon as the source of supply of aggregate have been approved, the Contractor shall instruct the testing agency to carry out the following tests for compliance with “Specification of Concrete Aggregates” (ASTM C33).

Sieve analysis
Tests for clay, silt and dust content
Tests for organic impurities
Tests for salt content (chloride and sulfate ions)
The results of these tests shall be submitted for approval as soon as available. Test (1) and (2) with tests for the moisture content of each aggregate shall be carried out on the sample used for each trial mix.

Testing sampling of Aggregates

The contractors shall carry out such tests on aggregate samples as are necessary for the production of the specified concrete. The minimum incremental frequency of tests on each type of concrete used for the works shall be:

Sieve analysis: at least once weekly
Moisture content: at least once weekly
Tests for clay, silt and dust content: at least once fortnightlu
Tests for organic impurities: at least once monthly
Tests for salt content (chloride and sulfate ions): for every 500 cubic meters of concrete placed.
If for any reason the Engineer is not satisfied with the works concrete, he may instruct the Contractor to further increase the rate of sampling. Conversely, the rate of sampling may be reduce by the Engineer when consistent high quality been well established.


Hydropower financing:current trends and key issues

In the late 2000s the power sector in many countries experienced a major revolution. The old vertically-integrated, nationally owned power utilities were unbundled and the concept of freestanding independent power generating companies (IPPs) was established. This trend was part of a wider process of encouraging more private participation in the ownership and development of infrastructure, including hydropower and multi-purpose water projects. With this arrangement most projects were developed using the BOOT model (build-own-operate-transfer) under which a special purpose private company finances the scheme (usually on a non-recourse basis) and assumes virtually all of the project risks. In return it owns the infrastructure for the duration of the concession.
While this formula worked well for the thermal power sector, it quickly became apparent that the situation is more complicated when it comes to major water resources projects. In general the experience with projects such as large hydropower schemes has not been favourable, with many MOUs being signed between governments and prospective private developers, but few schemes actually reaching the construction stage. In many cases the main problem has been an inability to finance the project.
A number of Case Studies have been undertaken by the author. Although each is different, it is possible to detect certain overriding issues which dominate the private financing scene. They are:
1. RISKS dominate the availability and cost of finance, and are tending to migrate back to the public sector.
2. TARIFFS tend to be higher (than the public sector alternative) due to high soft costs, the layering of risk, and heavy debt service obligations.
3. FINANCIAL viability tends to compete with wider economic considerations, and it can distort the optimisation.
4. The PUBLIC SECTOR has yet to find a workable model for attracting private participation.
Faced with these problems, there is an increasing tendency to move towards something that is often referred to as a “Pubic-Private Partnership” – although this term has no clear definition and can mean different things to different people. The objective is to move towards come half-way project structure that preserves the best of both the traditional public sector model and the perceived benefits of private sector participation through a BOOT type of arrangement.
The structuring of a project (in terms of ownership, risk sharing, etc.) is often dominated by financing considerations. There is no single generic solution that can be applied to all projects, but the paper will discuss some of the key issues that arise in selecting the most appropriate financing model for a particular project.


Broadcast Flooring

Scope of work for broadcast flooring
The specified system of broadcast flooring shall provide a wearing surface with waterproofing properties.
The system is based on a solvent free epoxy, which has a good resistance to wear and chemicals.
Advantages of broadcast epoxy flooring
Good impact resistance
Skid-resistant finish
Good chemical resistance
Suitable for wet process area
High wear and abrasion resistance
System build-up for broadcast system
1.If needed, moisture barrier (if > 4% pbw moisture content into the substrate)
Epocem Primer ( Primer coat) 1 x Epocem Primer Approximately 0.15 Kg/m²
Moisture barrier (Body coat) 1 x Sikafloor 81 Epocem (2 mm minimum): 2.1 kg/m²/mm
2. Primer + levelling broadcast course
Wearing course 1 mm (Levelling layer) Sikafloor 161+ Silica Flour :Approx. 1,2 Kg/m²/mm + 0.3 Kg/m²/mm
Broadcast onto fresh resin (Broadcast) Quartz sand from 0.3 – 0.8 mm or 0.6 – 1.2 mm 4 – 5 kg/m²
Sealing coat (Coloured coat) Sikafloor 264 0.7 kg/m² (minimum)
(Approx. system thickness from 3 mm, without moisture barrier)
Application of broadcast epoxy flooring system
Primer and leveling broadcasted course: Apply Sikafloor 161 and Silica Flour on a 1 mm thickness.
Broadcast the surface of the resin to excess to achieve the desired degree of slip resistance. Next day remove all excess by brush and vacuum.
Sealing coat: Apply a sealing coat of Sikafloor264 by roller or squeegee.
[NB. Certain colors may require a slightly increased consumption applied in two coats].


Using Solar Energy for your Home Power

What we get from the sun? Heat and light as we all see. Another saying is sun’s energy or solar energy. The power from the sun is the most abundant form of energy available on earth. The sun has been one of the biggest factors dictating every living being’s stay on the earth. If we go the right path, we can harness more from the solar energy, like generating home power for daily use.
Advantages of home power taken from Solar Energy
The solar energy solution is gaining popularity amongst the alternate energy solutions.
• Green energy solution: When you look at the solar energy solution, you will realize that it uses absolutely no fuel other than the sun’s light. Moreover, it does not release into the atmosphere anything harmful.
• Cheapest power solution: First, the energy comes free. Then, the installation cost is a one-time cost. Finally, the investment is recovered within a few years of installation, making the power generated by solar energy absolutely free.
• Convenience of storage: You cannot store conventional power but you can store solar power for future use. The sun’s energy comes to rescue even in the times of darkness! Storing it also ensures a 24×7 supply of power, thus saving you from any power outage.
• Low on maintenance: The solar energy systems are easy to maintain. They do not involve high costs or too much effort, thus letting you reap the benefits of the solution comfortably.
How can solar energy be used for home power?
Solar power can be used as home power in our everyday lives by adopting the following solar power systems:
• Solar cooking system: Solar cooking is about cooking without lighting a fire or using electricity! Before you wonder, let me tell you that solar cooking is not about bland food. You can cook in more ways than one – boil, roast, or bake, cook the way you want! The only demand that solar cooking makes of you is being patient; it is a matter of more than a few minutes. However, it is not asking for too much given that you will get tasteful and healthy food without worrying about paying your gas or electricity bill.
• Solar lighting system: You can now light up the entire house, use every electrical appliance without thinking about cutting down bills. The solar lighting system lights up your house even in the nights, thanks to the power storage feature it has.
• Solar heating system: You can keep your house cozy and warm using the solar heating system without worrying about costs.
You can make your own home power system energy to eliminate your power bill. Make it easy by visiting


Project Management Methodology

Projects are usually split into phases often along the lines of initiation, control and closure. During each phase a number of documents are produced as part of the project control process.

Initiating a Project

All projects start with an idea for a product, service, new capability or other desired outcome. The idea is communicated to the project sponsor using the mandate. The mandate provides a structured approach to proposing a project and contains the project’s business case.

Once the mandate has been approved a further document is prepared that explains the project in greater detail. The project definition report is used to provide this information. This document is used as a key part of the assessment when deciding whether the project should be undertaken.

In particular it outlines the goals, objectives, scope, deliverables, assumptions, constraints, risks, issues, key people, benefits, costs and duration.

If authorisation to proceed is given, the contract is used to obtain formal agreement from the project sponsor and budget holder to start the project. This signifies the end of the initiation phase.

Controlling a Project

The control phase involves managing and tracking the project. To do this a project plan is developed. The project plan is most commonly expressed in the form of a Gantt chart and identifies the stages, tasks, timeline and resources. A good plan will include regular milestones that act as a measure of progress and keep the project team focused on short-term goals. Project plans may also include information about costs and dependent projects. A tracking Gantt chart can be used to monitor progress.

Once you have planned the project it is important to identify any factors that could have an impact on it. This is done using the issues log and risk log. The issues log is used to record issues and a plan to address them. The risk log is used to record and grade risks with an associated action plan to mitigate them. Often confused, risks and issues are defined as follows:

Risk: The likelihood of the occurrence of an event, usually a negative one that may adversely affect the successful completion of a project.

Issue: A concern raised by any stakeholder that needs to be addressed, either immediately or during a project.

Key to good project management and a successful project outcome is effective communication. The progress report is used to communicate progress on a regular basis, typically weekly or monthly, to all stakeholders of the project.

The control phase ends once the project has achieved its goals and objectives as detailed in the project definition report. A project may be stopped prior to completion for a variety of reasons, including changes within a business, lack of resources or higher priorities.

Closing a Project

Project closure is an important aspect of project management that is often overlooked. A project that is not closed will continue to consume resources, albeit slowly.

To receive acknowledgment from the customer that the project has ended the customer acceptance form is used. Once signed off the project team is disbanded and no more work is carried out.

At this point it is important to know whether the project has achieved its goals and objectives. This is done using the project closure report. This document communicates how well the project has performed against its original business case, quality criteria, costs, duration and tolerances.


Testing of Concrete Blocks

Concrete can be converted into precast masonry units such as Hollow and Solid normal and light weight concrete blocks of suitable size to be used for load and non-load bearing units for wallings. Use of such concrete blocks are more appropriate in region where soil bricks are costly, poor in strength and are not available. Depending upon the structural requirements of masonry unit, concrete mixes can be designed using ingredients available locally or if not found suitable then with in the most economical distance. The concrete mix used for normal hollow and solid blocks shall not be richer than one part by volume of cement to 6 parts by volume of combined room dry aggregates before mixing. Hollow concrete blocks for normal work used in masonry when reinforced is used shall not be leaner than 1 part cement to 8 parts room dry sand by volume. The mixes are designed with the available materials to give overall economy and the required properties of the products. The hollow load bearing concrete blocks of the standard size 400 x 200 x 200 mm will weight between 17 and 26 kg (1063 to 1625 kg/m3) when made with normal weight aggregates. Normal weight blocks are made with cement, sand, gravel, crushed stone and air-cooled slag. The grading for sand used in Hollow concrete block shall be as given below:

I.S. Sieve Size

Percentage Passing

4.75 mm


2.36 mm


1.18 mm


600 Micron


300 Micron


150 Micron


The aggregates for solid blocks shall be sand as per IS : 383-1970 and well graded aggregate of suitable maximum size as per the dimensions of the block. The mixes are properly designed as per standard practice. Concrete admixtures may be used in both Hollow and Solid concrete blocks.

20 full size units shall be measured for length, width and height. Cored units shall also be measured for minimum thickness of face, shells and webs. From these 3 blocks are to be tested for block density, 8 blocks for compressive strength, 3 blocks for water absorption and 3 blocks for drying shrinkage and moisture movement.

Three blocks shall be dried to constant mass in a suitable oven heated to approximately 1000C. After cooling the blocks to room temperature, the dimensions of each block shall be measured in centimeters to the nearest millimeter and the overall volume computed in cubic centimeters. The blocks shall then be weighted in kilograms to the nearest 10 gm. The density of each block calculated as follows:

Density in kg/m3 = Mass of block in kg/Mass of block in cm2 * 106

Three full size blocks shall be completely immersed in clean water at room temperature for 24 hours. The blocks shall then be removed from the water and allowed to drain for one minute by placing them on a 10 mm or coarser wire mesh, visible surface water being removed with a damp cloth, the saturated and surface dry blocks immediately weighed. After weighing all blocks shall be dried in a ventilated oven at 100 to 1150C for not less than 24 hours and until two successive weighing at intervals of 2 hours show an increment of loss not greater than 0.2 percent of the last previously determined mass of the specimen. The water absorption calculates as given below:
Absorption, percent =(A-B)/B * 100

A = wet mass of unit in kg.
B = dry mass of unit in kg.

The compression testing machine should be as per IS : 516-1959 and I.S : 14858-2000. The load capacity, platens sizes, vertical space between platens and horizontal space between machine columns shall be as per the requirements of the specimens to be tested.

However, IS : 2185 (pert-I) – 1979 specified that when the bearing area of the steel blocks is not sufficient to cover the bearings area of the blocks, steel bearing plates shall be placed between the bearing blocks and the capped specimen after the centroid of the masonry bearing surface has been aligned with the centre of thrust of the bearing blocks. It is desirable that the bearing faces of blocks and plates used for compression testing of concrete masonry have hardness of not less than 60 (HRC).

When steel plates are employed between the steel bearing blocks and the masonry specimen, the plates shall have thickness equal to at least one-third of the distance from the edge of the bearing block to the most distant corner of the specimen. In no case shall the plate thickness be less than 12 mm.

ASTM : C 140-03 specified that when the bearing area of the upper platen or lower platen is not sufficient to cover the area of the specimen, a single steel bearing plate with a thickness equal to at least the distance from the edge of the platen to the most distant corner of the specimen shall be placed between the platen and the capped specimen. The length and width of the steel plate shall be at least 6.3 mm grater than the length and width of the unit. The surface of the platen or plate hardness shall be not less than HRC 60 (BHN 620).

Thickness of bearing plates has a significant effect on the tested compressive strength of masonry units when the bearing area of the platen is not sufficient to cover the area of the specimen. Tested compressive strength will typically increase with increased plate thickness and with reduce distance to the further corner of the specimen. Accordingly the CTM platens shall have the required dimensions with respect to the specimens to be tested on it.

Eight full size units shall be tested with in 72 hours after delivery to the laboratory, during which time they shall be stored continuously in normal room air.

For the purpose of acceptance, age of testing the specimens shall be 28 days. The age shall be reckoned from the time of the addition of water to the dry ingredients.

The bearing surfaces of units shall be capped by gypsem. The gypsem and water paste shall be spread evenly on a non-absorbent surface that has been lightly coated with oil. The surface of the unit to be capped shall be brought into contact with the capping paste. The average thickness of the cap shall be not more than 3 mm. The caps shall be aged for at least 2 hours before the specimens are tested.

Specimens shall be tested with the centroid of their bearing surfaces aligned vertically with the centre of thrust of the spherically seated steel bearing blocks of the testing machine.
The load up to one-half of the expected maximum load may be applied at any convenient rate, after which the control of the machine shall be adjusted as required to give a uniform rate of travel of the moving head such that the remaining load is applied in not less than one nor more than two minutes.

The compressive strength of a concrete masonry unit shall be taken as the maximum load in Newtones divided by the gross cross sectional area of the unit in square millimeters. Report to the nearest 0.1 N/mm2 separately for each unit and the average for the 8 full units.

Note:- The Gross area is : The total area occupied by a block on its bedding face, including areas of the cavities and end recesses.

1.IS : 2185 (part-I)1979 1987 1998 – Specifications for concrete masonry. Units part-I Hollow and Solid Concrete Blocks (Second Revision).
2. IS : 2185 (part-II)- 1985
Super seeding IS : 3590-1966 Specifications for concrete masonry units part-II Hollow and Solid light weight concrete blocks (First Revision)
3. IS : 2572-1963 Reaffirmed 1997 Code of practice for construction of hollow concrete block masonry.
4. IS : 383-1970 Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete (Second Revision)
5. ASTM : C 140-03 Standard test methods for sampling and testing concrete masonry units and related units.

We are thankful to Sir Kaushal Kishore for publishing his unpublished research paper here on the website. This would be of great use to all the civil engineers who work are looking for information regarding Testing of Concrete Blocks .


Mix Proportion designations

he common method of expressing the proportions of ingredients of a concrete mix is in the terms of parts or ratios of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. For e.g., a concrete mix of proportions 1:2:4 means that cement, fine and coarse aggregate are in the ratio 1:2:4 or the mix contains one part of cement, two parts of fine aggregate and four parts of coarse aggregate. The proportions are either by volume or by mass. The water-cement ratio is usually expressed in mass

Factors to be considered for mix design

ð The grade designation giving the characteristic strength requirement of concrete.

ð The type of cement influences the rate of development of compressive strength of concrete.

ð Maximum nominal size of aggregates to be used in concrete may be as large as possible within the limits prescribed by IS 456:2000.

ð The cement content is to be limited from shrinkage, cracking and creep.

ð The workability of concrete for satisfactory placing and compaction is related to the size and shape of section, quantity and spacing of reinforcement and technique used for transportation, placing and compaction.


Types of Mixes

Types of Mixes

1. Nominal Mixes

In the past the specifications for concrete prescribed the proportions of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. These mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio which ensures adequate strength are termed nominal mixes. These offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a margin of strength above that specified. However, due to the variability of mix ingredients the nominal concrete for a given workability varies widely in strength.

2. Standard mixes

The nominal mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio (by volume) vary widely in strength and may result in under- or over-rich mixes. For this reason, the minimum compressive strength has been included in many specifications. These mixes are termed standard mixes.

IS 456-2000 has designated the concrete mixes into a number of grades as M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40. In this designation the letter M refers to the mix and the number to the specified 28 day cube strength of mix in N/mm2. The mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3) and (1:1:2) respectively.

3. Designed Mixes

In these mixes the performance of the concrete is specified by the designer but the mix proportions are determined by the producer of concrete, except that the minimum cement content can be laid down. This is most rational approach to the selection of mix proportions with specific materials in mind possessing more or less unique characteristics. The approach results in the production of concrete with the appropriate properties most economically. However, the designed mix does not serve as a guide since this does not guarantee the correct mix proportions for the prescribed performance.

For the concrete with undemanding performance nominal or standard mixes (prescribed in the codes by quantities of dry ingredients per cubic meter and by slump) may be used only for very small jobs, when the 28-day strength of concrete does not exceed 30 N/mm2. No control testing is necessary reliance being placed on the masses of the ingredients.

Factors affecting the choice of mix proportions

The various factors affecting the mix design are:

1. Compressive strength

It is one of the most important properties of concrete and influences many other describable properties of the hardened concrete. The mean compressive strength required at a specific age, usually 28 days, determines the nominal water-cement ratio of the mix. The other factor affecting the strength of concrete at a given age and cured at a prescribed temperature is the degree of compaction. According to Abraham’s law the strength of fully compacted concrete is inversely proportional to the water-cement ratio.

2. Workability

The degree of workability required depends on three factors. These are the size of the section to be concreted, the amount of reinforcement, and the method of compaction to be used. For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners or inaccessible parts, the concrete must have a high workability so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel sections. The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment available at the site.

3. Durability

The durability of concrete is its resistance to the aggressive environmental conditions. High strength concrete is generally more durable than low strength concrete. In the situations when the high strength is not necessary but the conditions of exposure are such that high durability is vital, the durability requirement will determine the water-cement ratio to be used.

4. Maximum nominal size of aggregate

In general, larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is the cement requirement for a particular water-cement ratio, because the workability of concrete increases with increase in maximum size of the aggregate. However, the compressive strength tends to increase with the decrease in size of aggregate.

IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 recommend that the nominal size of the aggregate should be as large as possible.

5. Grading and type of aggregate

The grading of aggregate influences the mix proportions for a specified workability and water-cement ratio. Coarser the grading leaner will be mix which can be used. Very lean mix is not desirable since it does not contain enough finer material to make the concrete cohesive.

The type of aggregate influences strongly the aggregate-cement ratio for the desired workability and stipulated water cement ratio. An important feature of a satisfactory aggregate is the uniformity of the grading which can be achieved by mixing different size fractions.

6. Quality Control

The degree of control can be estimated statistically by the variations in test results. The variation in strength results from the variations in the properties of the mix ingredients and lack of control of accuracy in batching, mixing, placing, curing and testing. The lower the difference between the mean and minimum strengths of the mix lower will be the cement-content required. The factor controlling this difference is termed as quality control.


Mix Design M-50 Grade

The mix design M-50 grade (Using Admixture –Sikament) provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors.

Parameters for mix design M50

Grade Designation = M-50
Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade
Brand of cement = Vikram ( Grasim )
Admixture = Sika [Sikament 170 ( H ) ]
Fine Aggregate = Zone-II

Sp. Gravity
Cement = 3.15
Fine Aggregate = 2.61
Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65
Coarse Aggregate (10mm) = 2.66

Minimum Cement (As per contract) =400 kg / m3
Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45

Mix Calculation: -

1. Target Mean Strength = 50 + ( 5 X 1.65 ) = 58.25 Mpa

2. Selection of water cement ratio:-
Assume water cement ratio = 0.35

3. Calculation of water: -
Approximate water content for 20mm max. Size of aggregate = 180 kg /m3 (As per Table No. 5 , IS : 10262 ). As plasticizer is proposed we can reduce water content by 20%.

Now water content = 180 X 0.8 = 144 kg /m3

4. Calculation of cement content:-
Water cement ratio = 0.35
Water content per cum of concrete = 144 kg
Cement content = 144/0.35 = 411.4 kg / m3
Say cement content = 412 kg / m3 (As per contract Minimum cement content 400 kg / m3 )
Hence O.K.

5. Calculation for C.A. & F.A.: [ Formula's can be seen in earlier posts]-

Volume of concrete = 1 m3
Volume of cement = 412 / ( 3.15 X 1000 ) = 0.1308 m3
Volume of water = 144 / ( 1 X 1000 ) = 0.1440 m3
Volume of Admixture = 4.994 / (1.145 X 1000 ) = 0.0043 m3
Total weight of other materials except coarse aggregate = 0.1308 + 0.1440 +0.0043 = 0.2791 m3

Volume of coarse and fine aggregate = 1 – 0.2791 = 0.7209 m3
Volume of F.A. = 0.7209 X 0.33 = 0.2379 m3 (Assuming 33% by volume of total aggregate )

Volume of C.A. = 0.7209 – 0.2379 = 0.4830 m3

Therefore weight of F.A. = 0.2379 X 2.61 X 1000 = 620.919 kg/ m3

Say weight of F.A. = 621 kg/ m3

Therefore weight of C.A. = 0.4830 X 2.655 X 1000 = 1282.365 kg/ m3

Say weight of C.A. = 1284 kg/ m3

Considering 20 mm: 10mm = 0.55: 0.45
20mm = 706 kg .
10mm = 578 kg .
Hence Mix details per m3
Increasing cement, water, admixture by 2.5% for this trial

Cement = 412 X 1.025 = 422 kg
Water = 144 X 1.025 = 147.6 kg
Fine aggregate = 621 kg
Coarse aggregate 20 mm = 706 kg
Coarse aggregate 10 mm = 578 kg
Admixture = 1.2 % by weight of cement = 5.064 kg.

Water: cement: F.A.: C.A. = 0.35: 1: 1.472: 3.043

Observation: -
A. Mix was cohesive and homogeneous.
B. Slump = 120 mm
C. No. of cube casted = 9 Nos.
7 days average compressive strength = 52.07 MPa.
28 days average compressive strength = 62.52 MPa which is greater than 58.25MPa
Hence the mix accepted.

We are thankful to Er Gurjeet Singh for this valuable information.


Concrete Mix Design M-60

Target strength = 60Mpa
Max size of aggregate used = 12.5 mm
Specific gravity of cement = 3.15
Specific gravity of fine aggregate (F.A) = 2.6
Specific gravity of Coarse aggregate (C.A) = 2.64
Dry Rodded Bulk Density of fine aggregate = 1726 Kg/m3
Dry Rodded Bulk Density of coarse aggregate = 1638 Kg/m3

Calculation for weight of Coarse Aggregate:
From ACI 211.4R Table 4.3.3 Fractional volume of oven dry Rodded C.A for 12.5mm size aggregate is 0.68m3
Weight of C.A = 0.68*1638 = 1108.13 Kg/m3

Calculation for Quantity of Water:
From ACI 211.4R Table 4.3.4
Assuming Slump as 50 to 75mm and for C.A size 12.5 mm the Mixing water = 148 ml
Void content of FA for this mixing water = 35%
Void content of FA (V)
V = {1-(Dry Rodded unit wt / specific gravity of FA*1000)}*100
= [1-(1726/2.6*1000)]*100
= 34.62%

Adjustment in mixing water = (V-35)* 4.55
= (34.62 – 35)*4.55
= -1.725 ml
Total water required = 148 + (-1.725) = 146.28 ml
Calculation for weight of cement
From ACI 211.4R Table 4.3.5(b)
Take W / C ratio = 0.29
Weight of cement = 146.28 / 0.29 = 504.21 kg/m3

Calculation for weight of Fine Aggregate:

Cement = 504.21 / 3.15*1000= 0.1616
Water = 146.28 / 1*1000= 0.1462
CA = 1108.13 / 3*1000= 0.3690
Entrapped Air = 2 / 100= 0.020
Total = 0.7376m3
Volume of Fine Aggregate= 1-0.7376
Weight of Fine Aggregate= 0.2624*2.6*1000= 683.24 kg/m3

Super plasticizer:
For 0.8% = (0.8 / 100)*583.53 = 4.668 ml

Correction for water:
Weight of water (For 0.8%) =146.28 – 4.668 =141.61 kg/m3

Requirement of materials per Cubic meter
Cement = 504.21 Kg/m3
Fine Aggregate = 683.24 Kg/m3
Coarse Aggregate = 1108.13 Kg/m3
Water = 141.61 Kg/ m3
Super plasticizers = 4.6681 / m3

So the final ratio becomes
Cement : Fine agg (kg/m3) : Coarse agg (kg/m3) : Water (l/m3): Superplasticizer (l/m3)

1: 1.35 :2.19 :0.29 :0.8

This concrete mix design has been submitted to us by Natarajan. We are thankful to him for this valuable contribution.


Concrete Mix Design – M 20 Grade Of Concrete

a) Specified minimum strength = 20 N/Sq mm

b) Durability requirements
i) Exposure Moderate
ii) Minimum Cement Content = 300 Kgs/cum

c) Cement
(Refer Table No. 5 of IS:456-2000)
i) Make Chetak (Birla)
ii) Type OPC
iii) Grade 43

d) Workability
i) compacting factor = 0.7

e) Degree of quality control Good

i) Specific gravity = 3.05
ii) Avg. comp. strength 7 days = 46.5 more than 33.0 OK
28 days = 55.0 more than 43.0 OK

i) 20mm Graded
Type Crushed stone aggregate
Specific gravity = 2.68
Water absorption = 1.46
Free (surface) moisture = 0


Mix Design For M35 Grade Of Concrete

he mix design for M35 Grade Of Concrete for pile foundations provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors.

Grade of Concrete : M35
Characteristic Strength (Fck) : 35 Mpa
Standard Deviation : 1.91 Mpa*
Target Mean Strength : T.M.S.= Fck +1.65 x S.D.
(from I.S 456-2000) = 35+ 1.65×1.91
= 38.15 Mpa

Test Data For Material:
Aggregate Type : Crushed
Specific Gravity
Cement : 3.15
Coarse Aggregate : 2.67
Fine Aggregate : 2.62

Water Absorption:
Coarse Aggregate : 0.5%
Fine Aggregate : 1.0 %


Take Sand content as percentage of total aggregates = 36%

Select Water Cement Ratio = 0.43 for concrete grade M35

(From Fig 2. of I.S. 10262- 1982)

Select Water Content = 172 Kg

(From IS: 10262 for 20 mm nominal size of aggregates Maximum Water Content = 186 Kg/ M3 )

Hence, Cement Content= 172 / 0.43 = 400 Kg / M3

Formula for Mix Proportion of Fine and Coarse Aggregate:

1000(1-a0) = {(Cement Content / Sp. Gr. Of Cement) + Water Content +(Fa / Sp. Gr.* Pf )}

1000(1-a0) = {(Cement Content / Sp. Gr. Of Cement) + Water Content +Ca / Sp. Gr.* Pc )}

Where Ca = Coarse Aggregate Content

Fa = Fine Aggregate Content

Pf = Sand Content as percentage of total Aggregates

= 0.36

Pc = Coarse Aggregate Content as percentage of total Aggregates.

= 0.64

a0 = Percentage air content in concrete (As per IS :10262 for 20 mm nominal size of

aggregates air content is 2 %) = 0.02

Hence, 1000(1-0.02) = {(400 /3.15) + 172 +(Fa / 2.62 x 0.36)}

Fa = 642 Kg/ Cum

As the sand is of Zone II no adjustment is required for sand.

Sand Content = 642 Kg/ Cum

1000(1-0.02) = {(400 /3.15) + 172 +(Ca / 2.67 x 0.64)}

Hence, Ca = 1165 Kg/ Cum

From combined gradation of Coarse aggregates it has been found out that the proportion of 53:47 of 20 mm & 10 mm aggregates produces the best gradation as per IS: 383.

Hence, 20 mm Aggregates = 619 Kg

And 10 mm Aggregates = 546 Kg

To obtain slump in the range of 150-190 mm water reducing admixture brand SP430 from Fosroc with a dose of 0.3 % by weight of Cement shall be used.


Mix Design M-40 Grade

The mix design M-40 grade for Pier (Using Admixture – Fosroc) provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors.

Parameters for mix design M40

Grade Designation = M-40
Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade
Brand of cement = Vikram ( Grasim )
Admixture = Fosroc ( Conplast SP 430 G8M )
Fine Aggregate = Zone-II
Sp. Gravity Cement = 3.15
Fine Aggregate = 2.61
Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65
Coarse Aggregate (10mm) = 2.66
Minimum Cement (As per contract) = 400 kg / m3
Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45

Mix Calculation: -

1. Target Mean Strength = 40 + (5 X 1.65) = 48.25 Mpa

2. Selection of water cement ratio:-
Assume water cement ratio = 0.4

3. Calculation of cement content: -
Assume cement content 400 kg / m3
(As per contract Minimum cement content 400 kg / m3)

4. Calculation of water: -
400 X 0.4 = 160 kg Which is less than 186 kg (As per Table No. 4, IS: 10262)
Hence o.k.

5. Calculation for C.A. & F.A.: – As per IS : 10262 , Cl. No. 3.5.1

V = [ W + (C/Sc) + (1/p) . (fa/Sfa) ] x (1/1000)

V = [ W + (C/Sc) + {1/(1-p)} . (ca/Sca) ] x (1/1000)


V = absolute volume of fresh concrete, which is equal to gross volume (m3) minus the volume of entrapped air ,

W = mass of water ( kg ) per m3 of concrete ,

C = mass of cement ( kg ) per m3 of concrete ,

Sc = specific gravity of cement,

(p) = Ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume ,

(fa) , (ca) = total mass of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) per m3 of
Concrete respectively, and

Sfa , Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and Coarse aggregate respectively.

As per Table No. 3 , IS-10262, for 20mm maximum size entrapped air is 2% .

Assume F.A. by % of volume of total aggregate = 36.5 %

0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.365 ) ( Fa / 2.61 )] ( 1 /1000 )

=> Fa = 660.2 kg

Say Fa = 660 kg.

0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.635 ) ( Ca / 2.655 )] ( 1 /1000 )

=> Ca = 1168.37 kg.

Say Ca = 1168 kg.

Considering 20 mm : 10mm = 0.6 : 0.4

20mm = 701 kg .
10mm = 467 kg .

Hence Mix details per m3

Cement = 400 kg
Water = 160 kg
Fine aggregate = 660 kg
Coarse aggregate 20 mm = 701 kg
Coarse aggregate 10 mm = 467 kg
Admixture = 0.6 % by weight of cement = 2.4 kg.
Recron 3S = 900 gm

Water: cement: F.A.: C.A. = 0.4: 1: 1.65: 2.92

Observation: -
A. Mix was cohesive and homogeneous.
B. Slump = 110mm
C. No. of cube casted = 12 Nos.
7 days average compressive strength = 51.26 MPa.
28 days average compressive strength = 62.96 MPa which is greater than 48.25MPa

Hence the mix is accepted.

We are thankful to Er Gurjeet Singh for this valuable information.


What is the principle of Asphalt Mix Design?

The main objective of asphalt mix design is to achieve a mix with economical blending of aggregates with asphalt to achieve the following :

(i) workability to facilitate easy placement of bituminous materials without experiencing segregation;
(ii) sufficient stability so that under traffic loads the pavement will not undergo distortion and displacement;
(iii) durability by having sufficient asphalt;
(iv) sufficient air voids

In asphalt mix design, high durability is usually obtained at the expense of low stability. Hence, a balance has to be stricken between the durability and stability requirements.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.


What is Marshall Mix Design for Bituminous Materials?

The Marshall Mix Design method was originally developed by Bruce Marshall of the Mississippi Highway Department in 1939. The main idea of the Marshall Mix Design method involves the selection of the asphalt binder content with a suitable density which satisfies minimum stability and range of flow values.

The Marshall Mix Design method consists mainly of the following steps:

(i) Determination of physical properties, size and gradation of aggregates.

(ii) Selection of types of asphalt binder.

(iii) Prepare initial samples, each with different asphalt binder content.
For example, three samples are made each at 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 percent asphalt by dry weight for a total of 15 samples. There should be at least two samples above and two below the estimated optimum asphalt content.

(iv) Plot the following graphs:

(a) Asphalt binder content vs. density
(b) Asphalt binder content vs. Marshall stability
(c) Asphalt binder content vs. flow
(d) Asphalt binder content vs. air voids
(e) Asphalt binder content vs. voids in mineral aggregates
(f) Asphalt binder content vs voids filled with asphalt

(v) Determine the asphalt binder content which corresponds to the air void content of 4 percent

(vi) Determine properties at this optimum asphalt binder content by reference with the graphs. Compare each of these values against design requirements and if all comply with design requirements, then the selected optimum asphalt binder content is acceptable. Otherwise, the mixture should be redesigned.


What is the purpose of conducting load test for piling works?

Pile load test provides information on ultimate bearing capacity but not settlement behavior. In essence, it can determine if the load is taken up by the stratum designed or if the centre of resistance is at the design location in piles as suggested by Robert D. Chellis (1961).

After conducting load tests, the curve of movement of pile head (Settlement against load) and the curve of plastic deformation can be plotted. By subtracting the curve of plastic deformation from the curve of pile head movement at each load, the curve of elastic deformation can be obtained. For piles of end-bearing type unrestrained by friction, the theoretical elastic deformation can be calculated from e=RL/AE where e is
elastic deformation, L is pile length, A is area of pile, E is Young’s Modulus of pile material and R is the reaction load on pile. By substituting e in the formula, the elastic deformation read from the curve of elastic deformation, L can be obtained which shows the location of the centre of resistance corresponding to that load.


Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles

When ever we are studying about a vertical pile, we need to understand that the flexural stiffness of the shaft and stiffness of the bearing soil in the upper 4D to 6D length of shaft are the two main factors on which the resistance to lateral loads of vertical pile depends.

Nondimensional solutions of Reese and Matlock help us plot the lateral-load vs. pile-head deflection relationship but the basic assumption with this is that the soil modulus K increases linearly with depth z

K= nhz
where nh coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction.

A characteristic pile length T is given by
EI= pile stiffness.

Now when a pile with free head is subjected to a lateral load Pt and moment Mt applied at the ground line, The lateral deflection y of a pile is given by


Ay and By are nondimensional coefficients.

For positive moment,
M=Am Pt T+Bm Mt

Percentage of load Transmitted To Rock Socket, Estimated by interpretation of finite-element solution for Poisson’s ratio 0.26.

Er /Ep

Er /Ep

Er /Ep

Ls /ds




















Their is a negative moment imposed at the pile head either due to pile cap or another structural restraint, this can be calculated as a function of the head slope (rotation) from this equation

theta rad represents the counterclockwise ( + ) rotation of the pile head and Atheta and Btheta are coefficients .

This value of Mt is put in previous equations to find the influence of the degrees of fixity of the pile head.

When we have a fixed-head case, the formula becomes


What should be the Roof slope to prevent Ponding?

As per standards, the Roof beams should have a continuous upward slope equivalent to 1/4 in/ft ( 20.8 mm/m) between a drain and the high point of a roof, in addition to minimum recommended camber to avoid ponding.

In case of insufficient slope that is less than 20.8mm/m, it should be noted that the stiffness of supporting members acting 5lb/ft2 or 239.4 N/mm2 load should not cause more than 1/2 inch or 12.7mm deflection.


Coltman Precast Concrete Streamlines Production Of Precast Concrete Hollowcore Slab Products

To further streamline production of its precast concrete hollowcore slab products, Coltman Precast Concrete has continued its ongoing investment programme with the acquisition of two of the latest Prensoland moulding machines.

The two EV-6 moulders, the first of their type to be bought by a UK manufacturer, represent an investment in excess of £350,000. They enable Coltman to produce hollowcore slab products that meet the requirements of the latest European Codes of Practice, which cover the manufacture of precast concrete.

A profile change can be achieved with the machines in five minutes. This allows for a wide flexibility in the range and size of products that Coltman can produce, increasing its manufacturing efficiency still further.

The EV-6 has a maximum working speed of up to 3m/min and at 17 kW is extremely energy efficient, delivering the twin benefits of lower maintenance costs and more efficient use of raw materials. The two new moulding machines are now jointly producing 5,000 sq m of prestressed concrete hollowcore floor slabs each week.

Said Coltman director, Nigel Gilbert: "The EV-6 is at the forefront of precast concrete production technology. Our management team worked very closely with Prensoland engineers over several months on the specifications for the two machines, which were then manufactured to our specific individual requirements."

Added co-director, Ian Gould: "Having the two new moulding machines gives us a major advantage as we are now supplying precast concrete products conforming to the very latest industry standards. As the machines are completely enclosed they deliver important health and safety benefits, and with their advanced design they are also extremely easy to maintain."

Coltman's product range include prestressed hollowcore wide slab and solid prestressed wide slab for flooring and roofing. Staircases, landings, balconies, terracing and wall units are also available as bespoke products.

Customers include some of the leading names in architecture, construction, civil engingeering, house building and property development. The company has been involved in numerous prestige projects, ranging from multi-million pound city centre redevelopments and quality housing, to civic cultural centres and premier sports arenas.


Caterpillar İncreases Manufacturing Capacity İn India

As part of its strategic plan to increase its manufacturing footprint in the rapidly growing Asia-Pacific region, Caterpillar Inc. has announced a four-year, $200 million investment to increase manufacturing capacity in India. The announcement to increase engine and machinery production in India was made during a visit to Caterpillar's India facilities by Caterpillar Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Jim Owens.

"Caterpillar machines and engines are being used by our customers in India to drive sustainable development and to support economic growth in the areas of infrastructure development, commercial and residential construction, mining, power generation and energy production," Owens said. "We are pleased to continue contributing to the growth and development of India. This additional investment demonstrates Caterpillar's commitment to customers in India and the importance of such emerging markets as we build our proven global business model across the Asia-Pacific region, an area that is critical to Caterpillar's 2010 and Vision 2020 goals."

Caterpillar will invest to significantly increase production for off highway trucks made at its facility near Chennai. Those Caterpillar trucks are used for coal and other mining applications in India. The company also plans to expand engine production at its facility in Hosur, adding production of the Caterpillar 3508 engine. The 3508 engines will be used primarily in off highway trucks produced by Caterpillar in India.

The company is also investing in increased India production capability for backhoe loaders. The backhoe loader is the most widely used construction machine in India, and Caterpillar has already more than quadrupled production of backhoe loaders in country in recent years. The company is also studying increasing its range of products made in India, with the possibility of building additional manufacturing facilities to meet demand for other earth-moving products.

"This increased capacity will help Caterpillar serve customers in India and Asia-Pacific with world-class machines and engines produced in the region and serviced by our unmatched dealer organization," said Tom Bluth, Caterpillar vice president with responsibility for Asia-Pacific manufacturing operations. "For the industries we serve, Caterpillar already has the widest base of operations and product support in the world, and we will continue to invest in our business in the rapidly growing Asia-Pacific region to meet the needs of our expanding customer base in these critical markets."


Hill Engineering Supplies Auto-Loc Excavator Quick Hitch To Woods Equipment Company

Hill Engineering Ltd has signed an agreement to supply its 'Safety First' Auto-Loc excavator quick hitch to Woods Equipment Company, one of the USA's largest independent manufacturers and suppliers of construction and agricultural equipment attachments.

Woods Equipment Company provides customers in the USA and Canada with a large selection of attachments for excavators, wheel loaders, tractor loader backhoes and skid steer loaders. Auto-Locs are now being manufactured by Hill and delivered to Woods for sale in the United States. All hitches are produced at Hill Engineering's factory in Newry, Co. Down, Ireland. Invest Northern Ireland has helped Hill Engineering to ramp up its overseas marketing capability, as well as significantly improve productivity and efficiency at its Newry factory.

The supply deal was signed by Hill Engineering's founder and Managing Director, Ian Hill, and representatives of Woods Equipment Company at the CONEXPO 2008 event in Las Vegas.

Ian Hill said, "There is no American-made quick hitch with the unique safety features to be found in the Auto-Loc, which is why Woods Equipment Company has decided to take it on board. The sales agreement represents a major breakthrough for us as it gives us inroads into Woods' vast distribution network of more than 2,000 construction equipment dealers across North America and Canada."

Woods Equipment Company’s Chairman, President & CEO, Fred Korndorf, said: "The Auto-Loc is fully automatic, with a visible safety mechanism, so there is no need for the operator to leave the excavator cab to remove or insert a safety pin when changing from one attachment to another. This rules out the risk of a safety pin being inserted incorrectly or not being inserted at all, which is why we consider it to be the safest and best engineered quick hitch on the market today."

Graham Davis, Invest NI's Director of Regional Economic Development, said: "The high quality and innovative nature of Hill Engineering's product has differentiated the company from its competitors and is indicative of the high level of technical expertise shown by Northern Ireland engineering manufacturers. Having identified a commercial opportunity, the company has successfully brought its products to market and is performing strongly, adding significant value to the local economy."

"This deal with Woods Equipment Company is an indicator of the high esteem in which Hill Engineering's products are held in the market. I wish both companies every success with their working relationship going forward."


Deutz New Hybrid Drive Can Reduce Fuel Consumption By 30%

DEUTZ has developed a unique hybrid power unit for construction equipment that is designed to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. DEUTZ claim that their new hybrid drive has the potential to reduce fuel consumption by as much as 30%.

The drive unit is the mild hybrid type, consisting of a DEUTZ four-cylinder diesel engine, an electric motor, a battery and a control unit. The electric drive serves to assist the main diesel engine drive.

Constantly energised when the engine is running, the system creates electrical energy that is stored within a lithium ion battery pack when asked to operate as a generator. In response to high engine loads, the system reverses its operating mode and turns into an electric motor. Doing so enables the system to supplement diesel power by taking stored battery power to assist the engine in driving the machine's hydrostatic transmission.

The electrical system provides a nominal 15kW output, with a peak capacity of up to 30kW, almost doubling the power of the DEUTZ engine.

The hybrid drive has been developed in conjunction with Heinzmann, a well-known manufacturer of engine control systems and a long-term DEUTZ partner and supplier.

A prototype unit has already been fitted to an Atlas Weyhausen wheel loader. While the standard AR65 loader is powered by a 68hp DEUTZ TCD 2011 diesel engine, the hybrid version has been replaced by a smaller 50hp D 2011 non-turbo-charged oil cooled version.

Unlikely to reach full commercial production until 2010, the electric motor/generator is situated where the engine's flywheel and flywheel housing is normally located.

The hybrid power unit has the following functions:
* Start and stop: automatic engine stop during idling phases, automatic engine start in the case of continued operation, the usual starter is omitted.
* Power boost: in the case the power peaks, the electric unit is cut in.
* Battery charging: if the diesel engine has excess power, the electric unit can charge the battery while operating as a generator.
* Recuperation: part of the braking energy is refed into the battery by the electric unit.

The hybrid drive is easy to fit, can be integrated with different types of DEUTZ engines and retrofitted to existing systems.

Currently, all functions on the Weyhausen loader's equipment side are still hydraulically driven. The next step will be to power the loader totally by a full hybrid drive system, delivering eventual emission-free operation.


Torcup Launches Raptor Pneumatic Torque Wrench

TorcUP has announced a pneumatic wrench with continuous and repeatable torque and an accuracy of +/- 5%. Light and fast, the Raptor is ready to accommodate your torque needs from 120 ft/lbs to 6,000 ft/lbs.

The Raptor works with a variety of applications making it the ideal tool for any pneumatic wrench need. Ranging in five sizes from the RP-500 to the RP-6000, the Raptor will give you the torque you need when you need it, quickly, reliably and dependably.

The Raptor has a patented gear technology which creates greater durability, lower operational temperatures and increased efficiency. Each Raptor meets stringent quality control standards before leaving the warehouse and with TorcUP’s 13 month warranty on all tools, so you can worry about the job at hand and not the tool.

With a sealed housing and ergonomic grip, the Raptor ensures the comfort of the operator and safe operation. After studying issues with typical pneumatic wrenches, TorcUP saw that other pneumatics allow water into the body of the wrench; this creates rust and friction which are the primary causes of pneumatic wrench failure. The Raptor has been sealed to keep the grease in and the water out. The benefit to the operator is less down time with fewer repairs.


Turbine Business Park Construction Started

The £70 million Turbine Business Park has now been granted reserved matters planning and construction has started. The 55 acre scheme is strategically located between Sunderland and Washington, on land fronting the A1231 adjacent to the junction with the A19, and will incorporate a prestigious 715,000 sq ft business park with office space, light industrial units, a hotel and car showroom and ancillary retail.

Barmston Developments, a joint venture partnership between Wilton Developments and Clugston Developments, has appointed contractor Hall Construction to carry out the first phase of infrastructure work on the 55 acre scheme, which includes 0.75km of the new access road known as Turbine Way, with completion due this autumn.

Jason Stowe, director of Wilton Developments, said: "We've worked closely with Sunderland City Council to create a masterplan for the site that we hope will generate in excess of 4,000 new jobs.

"Now that we have secured reserved matters planning we are keen to make a start on the scheme as swiftly as possible. A number of occupiers have already expressed their interest in space on the busines park and we are likely to be able to report our first deal very soon, prior to any serious marketing of the scheme."

Bob Culliford, managing director of Clugston Developments Ltd, added: "I am pleased to see the masterplan that we have all worked so hard on becoming a reality, in spite of the current economic climate.

"Our commitment and the commitment of our investors to the scheme has remained unwavering and we are looking forward to delivering a vibrant mixed use scheme that will appeal to those looking for a foothold in the North East, as well as meeting local occupier needs."

Sunderland City Council Leader, Paul Watson, concluded: "Turbine Business Park is a real indicator of the economic resilience and strength of the region.


Construction Underway For Derwenthaugh EcoParc Autoclave Recycling Plant

Derwenthaugh EcoParc will be one of the world’s largest steam autoclave recycling plants on the banks of the River Tyne in Gateshead. This £50 million investment will offer a large waste recycling plant capable of treating 320,000 tonnes of municipal solid wastes and commercial wastes, and will divert more than 80 per cent of input wastes from landfill.

The EcoParc will act as the blueprint for all future sites and comprises four key areas - municipal solid waste/ commercial waste reception; steam treatment and reception; separation plant; light waste, despatch and green waste transfer station. Additional office and floor space will be created for future development. The waste processing buildings will feature the latest UV odour treatment technology and be held at a negative pressure to prevent the release of any odour.

Procured via a negotiated partnering arrangement, the project team comprises process engineers and contractors to ensure a seamless solution to the construction process. Browne Smith Baker, the architects, drew up plans for the Derwenthaugh development and prepared the masterplan.

Clugston Construction, the main contractor on the development, commenced negotiations with Graphite Resources in 2004 and started work on site in May this year. Clugston is carrying out extensive site infrastructure works and will construct an extensive range of buildings on the site. Erection of structural steelwork will commence in the autumn.

Richard Greenwood, Project Manager for Clugston said: “Derwenthaugh EcoParc is an exciting opportunity, not just for Gateshead but for the North East region as a whole. It is a prestige project and a symbol of success for all those involved.”

William Thompson, executive director of Graphite Resources said: “This is an important project; we want to be working with the best people and resources to help deliver a scheme the North East can be proud of. The development is all about quality and with our construction team on board, this is an excellent start to attaining that objective.”

Mott MacDonald, the project management and engineering consultants to Graphite, provided pre-contract technical advice and technical contract drafting, and are continuing to provide formal project management and contract administration services throughout the construction and commissioning phases.

Quantity surveyor Henry Riley was involved with the feasibility, cost planning and contractual negotiations.

William Thompson said: “It is our stated aim to develop one of the leading EcoParcs in Europe, in terms of quality environment and technology as well as creating sustainable employment for the long-terms benefits of a local workforce.”


iCrete Concrete Used İn Prestige High-rise Projects İn Manhattan

The iCrete(TM) System offers record strength as well as dramatic environmental benefits and cost efficiencies when used in all major construction applications, including commercial, residential, and infrastructure projects.

The iCrete System has already been chosen for a variety of Manhattan's most prestigious high-rise projects, including:
- Freedom Tower, designed by architects Daniel Libeskind and David Childs.
- Beekman Tower, designed by legendary architect Frank Gehry.
- The Harrison, designed by the renowned architect Robert A. M. Stern.
- 11 Times Square, designed by Fox & Fowle, New York's premier office tower architects

The iCrete System, which is being poured right now at Freedom Tower as it rises at the former World Trade Center site in lower Manhattan, delivers a reduction of up to 40 percent in green house gases, advanced mix designs, plus higher performance and quality control.

The concrete designed by iCrete for Freedom Tower is the highest strength concrete ever poured in the history of New York. Less than one year after iCrete was introduced at Freedom Tower, it has already been poured at more than 30 construction sites in the Greater New York Metropolitan Area, including Midtown, the Upper West Side, Lower Manhattan and Tribeca and beyond.

"There's concrete. And now there's iCrete," says Juan Carlos Terroba, Chief Executive Officer of iCrete. "This represents the first major shift in 100 years in the way concrete is prepared. And the iCrete System is available worldwide - the rising costs of materials, labor and concrete itself have no geographic borders."


Chief Construction Officer Needed To Tackle The Problem Of The Fragmentation Of Construction Policy

The construction industry provides employment for more than 2.8 million people. The sector contributed 8.7% of the UK economy's gross value-added (GVA) in 2006, and generated some £10 billion of exports. The public sector is the industry's biggest customer, accounting for around a third of output.

The Business and Enterprise Committee has published its Report, Construction Matters (HC 127-1), a major strategic review of the UK's construction industry. It calls on the Government to create a new post of "Chief Construction Officer" to tackle the problem of the fragmentation of construction policy and procurement across government, and to set the industry on the right footing to tackle the major challenges it faces both in the short and long term.

"Acting at a senior level as 'champion' of the sector, the postholder would provide a single point of engagement between the industry and the public sector, having operational involvement in policy and regulatory matters across departments," the report recommends.

Peter Luff MP, Chairman of the Committee said: "When the committee began its work on the construction industry its commercial position was strong. Now industry, and particularly the house building sector, is facing a major downturn, yet it still generates over £100 billion of value-added for the UK economy-more than twice that of the energy, automotive and aerospace sectors combined. The public sector is by far its largest client and can drive change across the industry.

"We need to take action to address the issues identified in this report, irrespective of the business climate in which the industry is operating. We agree with the industry that coordination on policy between the many Government departments that engage with and impact upon this vital industry is patchy and ineffective. We believe the appointment of a Chief Construction Officer would provide a single point of engagement between the industry and the public sector and so give this vital industry a stronger and clearer presence in government."


Bachy Soletanche Shows Off İts Piling Work At Birmingham Cube Site

It’s quite rare for Bachy Soletanche Limited to properly show off its work, but at one site in Birmingham the firm’s £1.7M piling work has certainly seen some exposure. In fact BuildAbility’s ‘The Cube’ site excavation is so large that it was fast becoming Birmingham’s newest tourist attraction.

Bachy Soletanche designed and delivered a contiguous piled retaining wall around the perimeter of the site for the project. The piles were to support the surrounding buildings, roads and canal so that the site could be excavated up to 19m in depth. Using the large diameter auger (LDA) piling technique, Bachy Soletanche installed 226, 900mm diameter piles at 1050mm spacings. These were drilled up to a depth of 24m.

Other piling works included a minipile wall consisting of 24, 273mm diameter minipile installations for a car lift in the southwest corner of the site and another 54 minipiles to the west of the site alongside the LDA piles to add further support to the adjacent building. Thirty king post piles were also constructed to provide foundations for a ramp running down the centre of the site. Each king post pile was formed in a 900mm diameter pile, with a 400mm square steel column concreted into the toe of the pile.

Bachy Soletanche also installed to construct 12 temporary anchors to hold back the retaining piles on the east side of the site.


Thursday, December 8, 2011

GK Systems To Distribute Sioux Water Heating Equipment İn The UK

GK Systems (Europe) LLP, part of the Killoughery group of companies, has won a contract with water heater company Sioux to distribute its products in the UK.

The concrete technology specialists will supply market leader Sioux’s wide range of water heaters to the construction industry, which includes mobile units, static units and both hot and cold water pressure washers.

Hot water is essential for cold weather concrete production, and is widely considered a more effective method than heating aggregate – thus making for more profitable operations. Sioux is the biggest name in water heating equipment in the USA.

The company expects the market to find the M-415 model of particular interest – it can be fitted to mobile mixers and used in the production of rapid set concrete, both standard and foam, which can greatly accelerate the reinstatement process.

GKS also supplies washing equipment including hot and cold water pressure washers, mobile mixing units, foam generators and foam concrete.


Requirements For Civil Engineering Staff Remain Strong

This year has been yet another booming period for UK civil engineering firms. The latest figures from Hays Civil & Structural indicate that far from the stories of doom and gloom, civils is a resilient market due to much of the work being publicly funded and all of the top civils firms are continuing to look for staff.

Projects such as the 2012 Olympics sites and Crossrail which is worth £16billion, combined with Ruth Kelly’s announcement that £6billion will be invested in the nation’s transport system, highlight the opportunity for civil engineering jobs - particularly those who are qualified and are working towards Chartered status.

Hays Specialist Recruitment has re-launched its civil engineering business under the title of Hays Civil & Structural to reflect its renewed focus in this area. This new division benefits from specialist staff in nationwide offices, who have a comprehensive understanding of employers in the sector and specific job requirements.

Greg Lettington, Director of Hays Civil & Structural, commented: "Client requirements for civils staff remain strong because order books are still full. It is one of the key areas which is managing to successfully buck the downward trends, which other sectors are facing due to the credit crunch. Given that there is such a shortage of qualified engineers in general anyway, we can certainly say with confidence that good workers will remain in demand."


Kayleigh Plant Hire Opts For The Latest Volvo Equipment

Kayleigh Plant Hire, of Tottenham North London, has taken delivery of fourteen Volvo compact excavators and one fourteen tonne EC140C crawler excavator from Volvo Construction Equipment.

Kayleigh Plant Hire Ltd was established in 1993 to complement the main activities of the O’Donovan Group which specialises in waste recycling, waste disposal, material and aggregates recycling. The original business started back in the 1930s and today the Group is managed by the second generation of the O’Donovan family. Since moving into general plant, the Company has grown substantially offering both operated and non operated machines for hire throughout London and the south east of England.

“We pride ourselves in offering our customers a first class service and we expect the same from our suppliers,” said Michael O’Donovan, Managing Director of Kayleigh Plant Hire. “We’ve had a good relationship with Volvo CE since we purchased a BL71 backhoe three years ago, so when it came time to replace some of our older compact equipment we decided to opt for the latest Volvo equipment.”

And the machines in question are five ECR88 Plus (eight point eight tonnes); seven of the recently introduced five tonne ECR48C; two EC25s (two and a half tonnes) compact models together with the larger fourteen tonne EC140C. These are the first Volvo excavators to join Kayleigh’s fleet which totals approximately 100 units.

Features include a variable flow power control hydraulic system for precise control under all load conditions and safety features such as Roll Over Protection Structure (ROPS), Tip Over Protection Structure (TOPS) and Falling Objects protection Structure (FOPS) contribute to outstanding operator safety.


Caterpillar İntroduces PL61 Pipelayer

Caterpillar has introduced the PL61 Pipelayer at the small end of the Caterpillar pipelayer range, providing a machine with 40,000 pounds (18 145 kg) of lift-capacity and the capability to meet the pipeline contractor’s requirements for precision control, transportability, operator comfort, visibility and durability.

The PL61, shares many common components with the Caterpillar D6K tractor, featuring a Cat® C6.6 ACERTTM engine, closed-loop hydrostatic drive system, oval-track SystemOne™ undercarriage and an electronically enhanced operator station. Complementing this technology are premium features retained from the design of the predecessor model, the 561N, including hydrostatic draw-works, two-speed load line and extendible counterweight.

Available with either a canopy or an optional enclosed cab, the PL61 operator station features a pair of seat-mounted, electro-hydraulic joysticks designed for intuitive control of travel and lifting functions. The operator station provides clear lines of sight to all work areas, including the boom and upper block, which are visible through a new roof-mounted skylight. For added control, a combination decelerator/brake pedal can be configured to slow the machine with or without a reduction in engine speed.

The 18-foot (5.5 m) boom is constructed of high-tensile-strength steel, allowing a robust box-section design that is durable, yet lightweight to optimize payload capacity. The hook and cable-controlled boom are raised and lowered by independent hydraulic winches designed for smooth operation and infinite speed adjustment through their working range. Two-speed operation of the load-line winch provides high speeds for overall productivity, but lower speeds for precise positioning. Oil-disc brakes in the winches positively retain selected boom and hook positions.


The Benefits Of Precast Concrete Flooring

Over the past 40 years or so there has been an increasing shift to concrete flooring - particularly in commercial and industrial buildings. Some of the key reasons for this continuing growth can be summed up as sustainability, innovation and health & safety.


Sustainability is in many ways an obvious feature since it is one of the principal features of concrete as a material. Its 'shelf life' can be measured in decades rather than years and, what’s more, it can be broken up when no longer required and recycled in a variety of ways; including use as an aggregate for new concrete.


In terms of innovation, there are now many variations, each offering particular benefits for specific individual applications.

Health & Safety

Last, but certainly by no means least, there is health & safety - a vitally important area that is at the heart of the work of the Precast Flooring Federation.

Whilst product developments and innovation still continue, there are currently three main generic types of precast concrete floor: hollowcore, beam & block and lattice girder.

Of these it is hollowcore which is proving the most popular for commercial buildings. Hollowcore flooring consists of concrete elements cored along their length, with units generally available as 1,200mm wide - although some manufacturers produce up to 1,500mm, or as narrower units of 600-750mm width. Depths are 100-400mm, depending on the span and loading conditions; providing efficient, flexible solutions across all markets for most building types.

An often over-looked benefit of concrete floors is the improved acoustic performance. With today's generally increasing environmental noise, any such improvements are most welcome.

Concrete floors are also more cost-effective than timber and enable thinner floor zones, as well as longer spans. In addition, they provide a safe working platform for ongoing construction work.

Add to that their intrinsic one hour minimum fire resistance and compatibility with other precast concrete components such as stairs and balconies and it is easy to see why the technique continues to gain ground.

Another more obvious plus for concrete floors is the ability to vary room layouts without worrying about floor loadings. This feature applies particularly at first floor level and above, avoiding any concern about the positions of supporting walls. For the designer this flexibility and adaptability provide yet more factors in favour of concrete.


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