Thursday, May 31, 2012

J D Neuhaus Mining Products with a Worldwide Reputation

The J D Neuhaus company have been designing and manufacturing handling equipment for over two and a half centuries, and pioneered the use of compressed air for powering handling equipment in the early 1950’s. The latter development ensured that their lifting and pulling equipment was suitable for use in hazardous areas and environments where there was a potential explosion risk.

Their products, which now also include optional hydraulic powered operation, are used worldwide in all major heavy industries such as mining, oil and gas, construction, shipbuilding, steelworks and even aerospace related for handling rocket parts. With a range that covers lift capacities from 250kg up to a full 100 tonnes, they now offer high performance, reliable products, 100% duty rated, that can be used wherever light, medium or heavy industries require the safe lifting, moving and precise placement of loads. These Ex rated hoists ensure the highest levels of safety for operating in potentially explosive or other dangerous atmospheres which can occur in mining locations.

Over the years, the JDN company have developed many purpose designed products for use in specific industries, including mining which is acknowledged as one of the toughest fields, making extremely high demands on both men and materials. JDN hoists are operating in multiple applications in this area including:

Long Walls: positioning of shield supports (pulling)
Stationary: lifting and lowering working platforms
Horizontal Shafts: in combination with monorails for transport of equipment
Vertical Shafts: lifting and lowering of objects (full profile drilling machines)
General Lifting: including tensioning and pulling tool in works and repair shops
Robbing Of Mines.
Routine Operations: many at the coal face
Belt Spanners.
Construction Works: lifting front load buckets
Special Applications: with capacities up to 100 tonnes for securing of vertical full profile drilling machines

Typical advantages offered as standard by JDN mining equipment includes:
• Very robust and low-maintenance, ideal for heavy duty
• Compact design, low weight with easy handling
• Operating air pressure 4 or 6 bar Overload protected motor
• 100% duty rating
• Sensitive positioning of loads when using the relevant controls
• Non-polluting by operation with oil-free air (PROFI series)
• Durable due to high quality materials
• Suitable for use in dirty, dusty and humid locations
• Can be used for oblique hoisting when special safety precautions are observed
• Insensitive to temperatures ranging from -20°C up to +70°C
• Suitable for applications in hazardous areas as standard
• Explosion and flame-proofness with additional spark protection available if required
• Low headroom, monorail operation for enclosed spaces
• Two load hooks for alternative pulling of heavy loads

JDN products designed specifically for mining and other underground applications include their M series air hoists. They operate off a 4 bar pressure and can be supplied in lift capacities of 1, 2, 3 and 6 tonnes. Twin chain pulls are provided for alternate working and all hoists feature a top hook mounting to accommodate oblique or horizontal pulling of loads. These products can be equipped with two optional control systems for single or two handed operation.

The DS system, which is designed for the two handed operation, has compressed air connected to the hand control valve. A built-in pressure regulator prevents hoist overload in the event of inadmissibly high air pressure. An oiler, situated directly at the hoist motor, is operated from the controller housing to ensure the oil flow automatically ceases when the hoist stops. The operating air immediately initiates the motor when the hand lever is activated. This lever is spring loaded and returns automatically to zero position when released. This forced release also serves as an emergency stop.

The optional PS control is for single handed use with emergency stop fitted as standard. It operates indirectly with a compressed air supply connected to the control valve of the motor. The control pistons of the motor are actuated by the hand control push buttons, which automatically return to zero position. In the control valve of the motor, a pressure regulator protects the hoist from inadmissibly high pressure, while the integrated oiler provides the necessary lubrication.

Another specifically designed mining product is the SK125 shunting trolley. This also operates off a 4 bar air supply and offers the economic transportation of loads when suspended from lifting beams located underground. Gradients of up to 18° inclination can be negotiated and the unit provides a minimum push/pull of 14 kN at 4 bar pressure.

Typical features include:

Service Brake: a service brake is integrated for releasing the holding brake. When stopping the JDN shunting trolley, the travelling speed decreases to zero and a brake cylinder closes the holding brake

Holding Brake: the effective static holding force is 50 kN to 80 kN

Emergency Brake: centrifugal force actuates emergency braking

Mechanical Tensioning of the friction wheels: for constant pressure against the rail web

Lateral Guiding Rollers: for an optional guidance of the JDN shunting trolley

Brake Shoe Lining Type “Waffle”: for highest lifetime and lowest abrasion of the rail

Slow Speed Device as Standard

Noise Silenced

The Profi TI series hoists are also suitable for underground working and operate off air pressures of 4 or 6 bar, with hydraulically operated units also available. Lift capacities from 250kg up to 100 tonnes are available with traverse trolleys for overhead monorail operation also available for lift ratings up to 20 tonnes maximum capacity. These trolleys can be supplied for manual, reel chain and motorised traverse movements, with rack and pinion drives also available.

Typical features of these robust products include:
• Sensitive infinitely variable speed control for the precise positioning of loads
• Load chain and hooks manufactured from high quality tempered steels with a breaking strength of five times the nominal load
• Patented, permanent motor lubrication during operation, using a high-performance grease
• No additional motor lubrication required
• Suited for application in Hazardous Areas according to EC Directive on Hazardous Locations 94/9/EEC
• As standard: Ex II 2 GD IIA T4(X) / II 3 GD IIB T4(X)
• With increased spark protection: Ex II 2 GD IIC T4(X)

A specific mining application of JDN products include a Profi TI hoist with 37 tonne lifting capacity used for the safe and successful handling of an assembled pipeline string of some 1000 metres in length. This involved the connection of individual pipeline sections, each eight metres long, to create a completed string weighing 30 tonnes which had to be positioned within a mining shaft.

The compact and flexible hoist, offered excellent weight/load ratios, with the Profi 37 TI having an all-up weight of 880kg (with a standard 10 metre chain length) while providing an impressive 37.5 tonne lifting capacity. The elimination of any electrical power supply for drive mechanisms or ancillary equipment eliminates the potential for ignition risk, while increased spark-protection features ensure the highest ATEX ratings for hazardous area operation. Hydraulically operated hoists can also be provided where an air supply may not be readily available.


Multi-purpose McDrill range released by Skelair in UK Market

Skelair International extends its portfolio of McDrill rigs to include the MDT-40 range of multi-purpose drills. Designed for applications with restricted access, such as indoor drilling and tunnels, the MDT-40 spans two versatile and competitive rigs – the MDT-40K and MDT-40KS.

Offering the ultimate in versatility, the MDT-40 range can accommodate a wide range of drilling works, including micro piling, soil consolidation and jet grouting. The ability to operate across these diverse drilling requirements, even at reduced height, makes the MDT-40 range an ideal specification for companies needing a general purpose rig. 

With engine power of 47Kw engine @ 2,300rpm, rotary torque up to 9000 Nm and pull-back up to 7000 kgs, both rigs offer excellent drilling performance and high productivity. The MDT-40KS provides additional flexibility with an external diesel power pack and cable up to 25m, allowing the rig to be used with ease in applications such as basement works. 

Gianluca Baraghini from McDrill comments: “The MDT-40 range has been developed to meet the needs of contractors that operate in confined spaces and across varied drilling applications. As a multi-purpose drill it offers excellent value for money and from a performance perspective is comparable to some of the heavier weight rigs on the market.”

With operational efficiency in mind, the MDT-40 range uses a remote control to adjust mast positioning and drill setting – ultimately minimising down-time between stages of work. Importantly for the UK launch, McDrill has also developed UK-compliant drill guards for use with the MDT-40 range. 

John Mayo, Managing Director, Skelair, concludes: “Customers purchasing drilling equipment are looking for increased flexibility in order to extract the maximum value from their investment. The McDrill MDT-40 range is an excellent all-rounder in terms of drilling applications and is proven on the continent as ideal for smaller sites and restricted access.” 

Skelair represents a number of other market-leading manufacturers in the UK and Ireland, including EMCI, Klemm, Marini, TEI, Obermann and Wassara.


Solution for industrial pipes-PAROC Pro Clad, new sustainable pre-clad insulation

Paroc Technical Insulation introduces PAROC Pro Clad - a pre-clad insulation solution for industrial pipelines and pipe elbows. It is a cost-effective solution, with products that are easy and quick to install. Furthermore as the insulation and cladding can be installed at the same time, it means significant savings in installation work.

PAROC Pro Clad is a pre-clad solution ideal for indoor and outdoor usage in different industrial applications. The solution contains PAROC stone wool pipe sections, segments and bends, which have the same insulating capacity and other properties as PAROC Pro Sections. PAROC Pro Clad products have aluminium coated strong glass fibre cloth cladding with UV-protection, which makes these products especially suitable for outdoor usage.

Water tightness boosts sustainability: The insulation works as designed when it stays dry. Water tightness and vapour permeability of this solution guarantee optimal insulation characteristics and reduces the risk of corrosion. This makes PAROC Pro Clad a sustainable and energy efficient long-term solution.

Elasticity creates durability: When using ordinary cladding materials, the construction gets easily damaged and mechanical damage can cause leakages, infiltration of humidity and dirt, energy loss and even corrosion. PAROC Pro Clad solution works against all these problems since the products holds its form. Elasticity of the cladding makes PAROC Pro Clad a solution that is suitable for applications where physical durability is needed.


Kendall Plant Expands Processing Fleet With Finlay Plant SW In Cornwall’s ‘White Mountains’

High performance plant supplied by Finlay Plant SW to Kendall Plant Ltd is enabling large volumes of high grade, recycled material to be processed, in the heartlands of Cornwall’s china clay quarrying industry.

Machinery including the Terex Finlay J-1175 Jaw Crusher, C-1540 RS Cone Crusher and Supertrak 694+ are enabling Kendall Plant to process stent - the material left over from the extraction of china clay.

Keith Kendall, who has a background in agricultural contracting, is the owner and director of Kendall Plant.

He made his first venture into crushing 14 months ago, and has been contracted by Brookland Sand and Aggregates at Gunheath Quarry, near to St Austell, to process the stent - millions of tonnes of which are on the site, along with regular deliveries from china clay quarries in the locality.

To cut through the volume, plant was needed with high outputs, and Keith has worked closely with Gareth Johnson, managing director of Finlay Plant SW Ltd, to introduce high performance machinery that delivers maximum value from the processed material – producing a clean and valuable end product.

The process starts with a Terex Finlay J-1175 Jaw Crusher, which has the capacity to take in half-tonne rocks, through to dust.

With an independent pre-screen fitted, fines in the stent can be removed at an early stage in the process – eliminating the need for a reclaimer or any other type of screener to scalp off -45mm.

This function is particularly valuable as the stent material comprises of up to 50 per cent fines in with the granite rock.

Fines fall through the mesh and -45mm is scalped off to make Type 1 803 material, while +45mm goes through the jaw to produce crusher run, of which 75mm is the largest size.

This then goes into the Terex Finlay C-1540 RS, Cone Crusher, which provides the versatility of a crushing and screening plant in one machine.

Featuring an onboard recirculating system and detachable sizing screen, the machine at Gunheath processes 45mm material through the mesh, with +45mm re-circulating and then going into the four-way Terex Finlay 694+ tracked mobile screen at -45mm.

The 694+ offers a triple deck screen configuration, providing three full-sized 6.1m x 1.525m screens, and a hydraulically folded fourth conveyor.

It produces an end single size product of 40mm clean chippings, 20mm clean chippings and 10mm clean chippings, used as decorative material, as well as for ready-mixed concrete and drainage and pipefill material. The 6mm to dust end product is delivered to a nearby manufacturer for concrete blocks.

The machinery currently outputs 2,000 tonnes a day and there is no waste from the processing activity - all the end product material is used, making it a highly-effective recycling process.

Keith Kendall said: “We’ve worked with Finlay Plant SW because they offer exceptional service and great back-up for us on site.

“We are in a remote area, but we can always ensure a prompt service in terms of fitting and commissioning, parts and spares and advice on the specification of machinery.

“All the machinery is working really well, and the pre-screen on the J-1175 delivers major economic benefits as it means we don’t need a reclaimer to scalp off fines.

“We are benefitting from exceptional performance, reliability and volume of product, with the ability to increase capacity as required.”

Gareth Johnson, managing director of Finlay Plant SW, which is part of the Finlay Group of companies, said: “The plant has been selected to all join-up, for maximum productivity.

“As well as this ‘train’ effect, it can also work independently, with flexible configurations, ease of maintenance and mobility assured.”


ISG's Highly Sustainable Science Block Inspires Devon Students

ISG began to work on a £1.7 million project which involved building a new science teaching facility at Uffculme School in Devon. Purpose-built to integrate some of the newest innovations in sustainable construction technology, the new building is intended to become an integral part of the science curriculum as students will be able to view the green energy production processes at work on visual displays.

The two-storey, L-shaped steel frame structure will become a stand-alone resource at the campus and replaces outdated facilities split across two buildings at the school. Housing seven high specification teaching laboratories, alongside preparation rooms, a staff room and communal areas, the new building has a contemporary design with large areas of glazing, brickwork and render to its façade.

The science block incorporates a range of sustainable technology to minimise its environmental impact, reduce overall running costs and provide a valuable real life teaching aid. Technologies include roof mounted photo voltaic cells, to generate emission free electricity, and a ground source heat pump system, which extracts latent energy stored in the ground and uses this to heat the building.

Additional sustainable features see the installation of roof mounted sun pipes to increase the volume of natural light entering the structure and reduce the requirement for artificial lighting. The building will also benefit from solar shading via the roof overhang and fixed brise soleil to minimise solar glare and associated heating.

ISG will carry out the project within a busy, live environment with complex logistical challenges and the requirement to provide access to the school playing fields at all time. The scheme is scheduled for completion at the end of the year.

ISG’s John Rawlinson, managing director – South West, commented: “The opportunity to use a new school development as an important learning resource is an excellent way for students to understand how green technologies work in a real world context. Students will be able to see exactly how much energy their new science block is generating and I’m confident that this application of technology will help inspire and educate generations of Uffculme students to come.”


Slip resistant epoxy resin coating protects the floor and enhances safety- Gogar Tram Depot

An improvement programme focusing on the Edinburgh to Glasgow rail corridor is introduced through the Edinburgh-Glasgow Improvement Programme (EGIP). Its objective is to make Edinburgh airport and nearby business developments more accessible by public transport by improving the train services and integrating them with the Edinburgh tram system. Part of the programme included the construction of a new tram depot at Gogar.

The depot building includes a two storey accommodation block incorporating staff offices and associated staff facilities plus the tramway system control room. The depot also houses main workshop areas, an internal tram wash area, maintenance pits for tram maintenance as well as stabling areas where the trams are due to be located overnight.

The client’s design brief called for a robust anti-slip coating for the floor, it needed to be: hard wearing, slip resistant, easily cleaned and resistant to chemicals. After consultation with Ronacrete’s technical department, Parsons Brinckerhoff specified RonaFloor HB100, a solvent free epoxy resin coating with additional anti-slip aggregate.

RonaFloor HB100 is suitable for use on concrete, screeded and granolithic floors. Its resistance to abrasion by constant traffic, its tolerance of train wash chemicals and oil spills made it particularly suitable for the tram depot. It is available in a variety of colours to clearly define hazardous areas.

The main contractor, Barr Construction appointed Industrial Floor Treatments Ltd to carry out the coating works. After approval of a trial, Industrial Floor Treatments laid approximately 5000m2 of RonaFloor HB100 in the specified colours. The concrete substrate was prepared by captive shotblasting before the first coat of RonaFloor HB100 was applied by roller. Kiln dried aggregate was scattered into the fresh resin to provide slip resistance and a second coat was applied to encapsulate the aggregate and produce a hygienic and wear resistant surface.


Solution for industrial pipes-PAROC Pro Clad, new sustainable pre-clad insulation

Paroc Technical Insulation introduces PAROC Pro Clad - a pre-clad insulation solution for industrial pipelines and pipe elbows. It is a cost-effective solution, with products that are easy and quick to install. Furthermore as the insulation and cladding can be installed at the same time, it means significant savings in installation work.

PAROC Pro Clad is a pre-clad solution ideal for indoor and outdoor usage in different industrial applications. The solution contains PAROC stone wool pipe sections, segments and bends, which have the same insulating capacity and other properties as PAROC Pro Sections. PAROC Pro Clad products have aluminium coated strong glass fibre cloth cladding with UV-protection, which makes these products especially suitable for outdoor usage.

Water tightness boosts sustainability: The insulation works as designed when it stays dry. Water tightness and vapour permeability of this solution guarantee optimal insulation characteristics and reduces the risk of corrosion. This makes PAROC Pro Clad a sustainable and energy efficient long-term solution.

Elasticity creates durability: When using ordinary cladding materials, the construction gets easily damaged and mechanical damage can cause leakages, infiltration of humidity and dirt, energy loss and even corrosion. PAROC Pro Clad solution works against all these problems since the products holds its form. Elasticity of the cladding makes PAROC Pro Clad a solution that is suitable for applications where physical durability is needed.


The O2 Roof Top Project draws close to its finish in all its glory

Working together are Contractors ISG, Base Structures and engineering consultancy Buro Happold in order to complete the challenging design and build programme for the new unique and daring visitor attraction at The O2, the world’s most successful music and entertainment venue.

The ‘Up at The O2’ experience, originally conceptualised by architects Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners with engineers Buro Happold, features a tensile cable and fabric walkway that will take climbers on a thrilling journey over the venue’s roof, that includes breathtaking views of the City from a purpose built viewing platform mounted on top of the iconic structure.
The ground-breaking roof walk project, a partnership between AEG, owner and operators of The O2 and O2, the UK’s leading communications company, is unlike anything else ever constructed in the UK and draws on all of the delivery team’s specialist experience with large scale tensioned cable and fabric structures.

The climbing experience will begin on the south side of The O2 where ISG has constructed a staircase and glass lift connected to a platform 7.5m high. From here the fabric walkway, built by Base Structures and designed by Buro Happold with bblur Architects, suspends above the existing fabric structure to its apex with a lanyard cable and hand rail running the full length of the walkway. Climbers will be provided with ‘roof suits’ and harnesses at a pre-tour induction, enabling them to be attached directly to the cable as they climb to the top. At

The O2’s apex, 53m above ground level, there is a 12m diameter viewing platform with a panorama plate to direct climbers to key London landmarks. The roof walk then extends to the north side of The O2 where climbers descend to ground level. Sustainability is also an important aspect of the attraction; the building services systems have been designed to minimise carbon emissions and solar PV units have been installed on the roofs of each of the north and south pavilions to meet the 20% energy renewables target. All internal and external light fittings are LED further improving energy efficiency.

The high level of accessibility for Up at The O2 was inspired by Helen Keller’s famous words; “Life is either a daring adventure or nothing”. Buro Happold’s Inclusive Design experts worked closely with client and disabled groups (The O2’s All Access Advisory Forum) to question assumptions about climbing and to create an attraction that is truly inclusive. A key driver in its delivery has been to make the experience exciting, fun and safe for everyone within the technical constraints imposed by both equipment and safety. Step-free access means that anyone, including wheelchair users who enjoy the demands of climbing, will have the opportunity to experience this amazing challenge.

ISG was awarded the contract by Ansco Roofwalk Limited (part of AEG) following a competitive tender. Buro Happold was lead consultant for the works and tensile fabric specialist Base Structures were then appointed by ISG to assist in the delivery of the scheme.

The role of each contractor is as follows:
ISG is the main contractor for the project and has extensive experience of working with cable net roof structures following the successful delivery of the London 2012 Velodrome. Working closely with the client, immediately post-contract, ISG was instrumental in bringing together the specialist team to deliver this highly complex and unique construction challenge.

Operating under tight security restrictions on site, with major logistical issues and a fast track programme, ISG has incorporated off-site solutions wherever possible to ensure successful project delivery.

Buro Happold, who delivered both the Millennium Dome and its subsequent adaptation to the world renowned The O2 arena, was the advisor to the client from the project inception, and novated post-tender to act as lead consultant on the project. The consultancy has designed an elegantly simple structure, comprising a pre-stressed system of cables with a central viewing platform that provides a stage for special events and offers a unique view of the City’s skyline for Up at the O2 climbers.

Base Structures is responsible for delivering the detail design, fabrication and construction of the unique cable tensioned fabric walkway and central viewing platform. With a tight programme, the team has conducted extensive prototyping and testing prior to the build in order to test design assumptions, and to ensure the highest possible quality control and safety on site. Logistical challenges also pushed the team to design an entirely unique system to transport more than 30 tonnes of materials up to the apex of The O2 (which no crane could reach) without affecting the integrity of the existing structure. All these major challenges have now been tackled successfully.

“This has been a highly challenging project due to the unique nature of the structure and the immense time pressures,” said Alistair Wood, Executive Director for Real Estate, AEG. “It’s times like these when you’re glad to be working with some of the most experienced contractors in this field. With completion around the corner, we’re really excited about the launch – it’s an attraction that promises ‘climbers’ an entirely unique and breathtaking experience on one of the world’s most iconic venues.”

“This has been a highly demanding project – we’ve got extremely tight deadlines; the design is one of a kind; and the construction has presented all sorts of logistical and technical challenges,” said Mark Smith, Head of Projects at Base Structures. “But these kinds of projects are what we do best and we’re working with some great partners.”

“As the original consulting engineers and co-designers for The O2 arena we were delighted to be invited to design this latest addition to the London skyline. The roof walk is a combination of architecture, engineering and extreme visitor experience, and represents the only installation of its kind anywhere in the world” says Buro Happold’s Matthew Birchall, Director for Structures, and the overall design team leader.

ISG’s Stuart Deverill, managing director - London, commented: “Up at The O2 poses a set of extraordinary challenges for our project team, including operating within a busy live environment at a waterside location and extensive working at height. Our experience building the London 2012 Velodrome was undoubtedly a major factor in our appointment and the ability to deploy the skills and expertise of members of this delivery team was a major differentiator for ISG.”


Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Renewable Energy World Europe and Nuclear Power Europe 2012 by Power-Gen Europe

POWER-GEN Europe, is now successfully in its 20th year of existance, co-located with Renewable Energy World Europe, and Nuclear Power Europe offers the most superior conference and exhibition for the European electricity and power technology sector. The combination of conferences and exhibitions across the entire spectrum of power generation is unique and is serving the vital move towards integrating the traditional fossil fuel and fast-growing renewable generation sectors.

This year’s event takes place from 12-14 June 2012 at the Koelnmesse, Cologne, Germany.

Event highlights:
-Keynote address from: Dr. Michael Süß the CEO of Siemens Energy Sector, Philip Lowe the Director General for Energy for the European Commission and Bernhard Fischer CEO of E.ON Generation GmbH (9.30am Tuesday 12 June)

-Over 600 exhibitors from 89 countries with over 15,000 visitors expected

-The strategic and technical conference programme will provide a comprehensive insight into all aspects of the operation of the power industry including all the latest technologies, strategies and implementations


Burnley UTC Plan submitted

Supported by major employers from across the aerospace, nuclear, technology, and green energy industries, planning has been submitted for a new University Technical College (UTC) at Burnley in Lancashire

Capita Symonds is providing design and project management services on the £9.3m project – the Visions Learning Trust UTC - which will provide education for 800 young people aged 14-19, combining traditional education with employer-led technical training. Specialising in engineering and construction from basic skills to degree level, the UTC will provide students with a seamless transition into the world of work or further education.

The project is being developed at the Weavers’ Triangle site which features a 150 year old Victorian mill – Victoria Mill will be the location of the UTC. It is being developed by Visions Learning Trust, with lead sponsor Training 2000 (one of the North West’s largest independent work based learning providers of training courses), Burnley Council and Barnfield Investment Properties. It already has the backing of a range of leading local and national employers, as well as Liverpool John Moores University and the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan).

The Victoria Mill site is located in Weavers’ Triangle in the heart Burnley and benefits from good transportation links and next generation ICT provision. As this is a major refurbishment of a Grade II listed building in a conservation area comprising the redevelopment and extension of Victoria Mill, adjacent weaving shed and engine house, the Capita Symonds design team is adopting the current orientation, position, scale and adjacencies of the existing buildings and only providing an extension to form a multifunctional hall that can’t be accommodated within the existing buildings.

The new extension is a simple box to house sports activities and enhancement provisions for the UTC and also for the local community. It adjoins a new glazed link – ‘the street’ - which provides circulation in to and around the clusters within the weavers shed at both ground and first floor levels. The careful juxtaposition of the new construction respects the existing urban grain, continuing and completing the street pattern and permitting views and permeability.

The massing and form of the extension is appropriate to the scale and articulation of the area, with the size and height of the building dictated by the size of a basketball and netball court and the height required to play various sports. The use of contemporary materials which respect the scale, colour and texture of the existing fabric and the history of the site have been proposed, with a simple picture frame hood surround in sheet metal, to the main elevation on Trafalgar Street and the rear elevation, being the main feature of the simple box.

New glazed links have been provided to link the buildings together to provide clear and legible internal circulation around the building. A partially glazed roof to the space in-between the Victoria Mill, weaver shed, engine house and water tower, forms an internal courtyard pace, which is at the heart of the building providing a fantastic, light and airy social space for all to meet, learn and relax in.

The existing buildings will retain the existing built forms currently remaining on the site and as much as possible of the existing fabric and features will be retained.

For the internal space, the architectural concept and design philosophy is to create a ‘thematic hub’ space and ‘flexible learning clusters’ alongside traditional learning settings within different part of the building, allowing flexible and efficient learning spaces. The sponsors hub is the main element of the educational vision and the key space as people enter the building from the main entrance from Trafalgar Street. It is at the heart of the UTC and is the employer and university sponsor endorsed thematic space in which it can deliver the thematic curriculum. Within this key space there is a specialist tiered lecture theatre, science studio, workshop, general learning space and exhibition space where the sponsor would exhibit a specialist piece of kit.

Sustainable principles are interwoven into the fabric of the design of the UTC, with the new facility providing a new community where people will study, work and relax as part of the wider Weavers Triangle. The new UTC’s sustainable strategy is far from being a bolt-on to the design, or a parade of the latest eco-gadgets, with sustainable measures contributing to the efficient operation of the building and establishing a healthy environment for all users. Barnfield Construction, the contractors for the project, proposes to eliminate the unnecessary consumption of resources during construction and also provide a broad suite of ways to minimise environmental impacts when the building is fully operational.

Gareth Smith, Project Director at Barnfield said: “This project epitomises real regeneration and with our partners at Burnley Borough Council we will be able to deliver this exciting project in a short period of time. The ethos behind this facility fits perfectly with our wider plans for the area. The work put in by our professional team is to be highly commended and has enabled a remarkable amount of work to be done in a very short period of time. This scheme forms part of a much wider regeneration which is being undertaken by the Joint Venture between Barnfield Investment Properties and Burnley Borough Council. This development will be the catalyst to much wider and exciting opportunities in this area creating much needed footfall and economic growth.”

Steve Gray, chief executive at Training 2000, lead sponsors of the Visions Learning Trust UTC, said: “Submitting the planning application means that we are one step closer to realising our dream of establishing East Lancashire’s first UTC and I’m delighted we are at this stage of the proceedings. Visions Learning Trust UTC will offer an alternative to traditional education routes and will engage young people through hands-on, technical learning that will give them a real flavour of what life is like in the world of work.”


Euro Auctions offers a World Round Up for Q1 - 2012

In the last 4 years, there were quite a few surprises that sprung up on the economy. Used machinery and construction equipment, like water has a way of finding its own level and globally, regardless of manufacturing output, used equipment is highly sought after. This results in new markets and emerging demands dictating where machinery is required in the world. With Caterpillar Inc releasing impressive recent financials for 2011, the thirst for used machinery and equipment seems unquenchable. At the end of 2011 the expectations for market activity in early 2012 was optimistic, and now with the first quarter (Q1) of 2012 behind us, what is the feeling in the market for the rest of the year and what has the market to offer?

Worldwide: Manufacturers are now producing again. In the downturn, many geared down quickly and with demand now increasing, the winners are those that are able to gear up production efficiently, as the Year End figures from Caterpillar reflect. With the cost of new equipment up by around 20% on prices in June 2009, the used market is still strong. In mid to late 2011, regardless of make, model and year, prices strengthened for late-used and nearly-new equipment, with the strongest rallying in the 12 to 24 month class.

In 2012, the current trend, which is predicted to continue, is that interest in older machines and equipment in the 24 to 48 month class are the next focus on the ‘wish list’ as market stocks deplete. But what has caused this market shift? Again, showing no sign of fear, Caterpillar will launch 64 new machines in 2012 and will spend $4billion on capital investment.

At Auction: Euro Auctions has repeatedly seen over 30% of all plant sold leaving the UK and Europe for projects in Australia, South Africa, South America, Central America and India. With the UK still looking for large construction or infrastructure projects to commence in the wake of the Olympics, or house building to change up a gear, the future for the used market is overseas. UK prices of good second-hand equipment held through Q1 and look set to hold in Q2. In 2011, 12 to 24 month old equipment was reaching premium prices, closely followed by good 24 to 48 month old stock. This trend has continued in 2012 with world buyers now being more specific. High in demand is mining and extraction equipment with large dump trucks at the top of the list and anything with approaching 300 hours on the clock are seen as just ‘run in’ so many owners are sitting tight as projects end, seeing values rise as demand increases. Emerging markets are always the first to be seen at auction and India is a regular new participant with an appetite for small to medium sized construction machines such as backhoes, dumpers, mixers, dozers and excavators.

Demand: European demand has been affected by strengthening Sterling, leaving the UK more expensive than the rest of Europe. In Q1 of 2012 Australia continued its huge demand for crushers, screeners, large dump trucks such as the Volvo a40e, CAT 740, Komatsu hm400 and large excavators in the 50 tonnes plus category. With peace in North Africa continuing, wheel loaders, generators, backhoes dumpers and mixing plants are in demand and are being hotly contested. It was apparent that much equipment was being shipped through Africa bound for destinations such as India, South America and also Australia. Due to world demand companies like Caterpillar, JCB, Doosan, Volvo, Terex and many others have reignited production, but certain ranges are like endangered species with CAT 785, 789, 797 hard to find and CAT D10T and D11T almost extinct.

Europe: In Q1 it was still evident that Europe has its problems to solve and economies are faltering: Ireland is still in the doldrums, Italy has slowed right down, with Greece and Spain feeling a lot of pain. The demand for equipment in Europe rallied through 2011, however, in 2012 according to Off-Highway Research the next 12 months will be flat and could see plant sales drop by 2% across Europe and a further 2% in 2013. At market, Germany is the largest buyer of construction equipment in Western Europe and during the last 24 months increased acquisition by approximately 70% over 2009. Increased construction output in Eastern Europe is being led by Poland with a 34% increase on output over the previous year, whilst Romania shows 15% and Sweden 7% growth. These figures are reflected by the activity in the market. Decline is led by Slovenia -20%, Portugal -12% and Spain -11.5%.

Overall while Europe has seen a collective 1.4% decline, over 50% of used equipment is leaving the Eurozone for emerging regions. For those who are buying, the most sought after machinery categories across Europe are mini excavators, crawler excavators and telehandlers.

Pacific Rim: Australia continues to be the world’s number one client with no let down in the mining and extraction markets. In the last three months demand from ‘down under’ has not wavered and the exchange rate between the Australian Dollar and Pound Sterling is still making transactions from the Northern to the Southern hemisphere extremely attractive. In addition, large pipeline projects as well as the ongoing infrastructure works are creating demands for specialised equipment with pipe welding equipment and trenching machines in high demand. The Australian ‘cash cow’ is still mining, with contractors, operators and dealers seeking good quality low hours equipment. Q1 was strong in this region with Volvo, Komatsu, CAT and JCB being the preferred makes. In the last three months, New Zealand emerged as a new contender having new found demand for general contracting machinery following the lead from Australia and favouring the same brands.

Asia: Asia is fast becoming a powerhouse in the global economy. Following a positive start to 2012, India is set to become the next newly emerging market. In the next five years India will invest (US) $1.2 trillion in infrastructure projects, including transport, irrigation, oil, gas and telecommunications, which will need equipment and machinery. At market Indian interest is already being seen with smaller construction companies buying good used equipment, predominantly backhoes, telehandlers, compressors and mixers. Make is not important at this stage and older machinery is preferred. Vietnam is emerging as a new contender in the world buying list, resulting from the nascent economy with major road and infrastructure projects demanding not only all manner of dozers and excavators but general construction machinery, mixing plant and tower cranes. Japan is still recovering and companies like Komatsu, Hitachi and Hyundai that are based in the area and were affected by the tsunami, have seen factories either wiped out or shut down with failing supply chains. Caterpillar is actively focusing on China as a new target market and as a result the used market is following in the same footsteps. In Q1 this year China has been visible in the global market place, acquiring equipment not only for its own domestic use but to accelerate the growth of extraction of raw materials in Australia.

South America: The news in 2011 that huge infrastructure projects were under way in South America has resulted in a good start to 2012. Recent announcements include 5000 km of new highways under construction in Brazil and four major initiatives worth an estimated US$ 30 billion in Columbia which include highways, seaports, airports, railways and river ways. With mining in Chile, the global message is that heavy construction equipment and mining machinery is on this particular shopping list. World buyers from South America a


Launch of PME by Prolec

Core software in the integral PME system processes sensor data to model exact positional references, within the new modular Prolec Safety Controller. This real time machine position enables more responsive, more precise and therefore safer operation across a large range of equipment functions including lifting safety, height and slew control, overturning protection, reach control and cab protection. It offers real safety benefits to plant operators in construction and demolition applications.

Many existing control solutions are designed for one specific application or task. PME takes a different approach by processing machine data to produce generic metrics, irrespective of the task required for the machine. In turn, this permits far greater freedom in installation and equipment operation.

Beside flexibility and simplicity of installation, the PME concept along with the Prolec Safety Controller’s highly modular architecture also offers a path to easy upgrades. That means equipment owners and operators only need to specify the safety & control performance required today, confident that extra functionality can be easy added later as workloads dictate. Upgrading from simple to complex machine safety and guidance solutions is straightforward and highly cost-effective. With PME at the system’s heart, users simply upload fresh controller code instead of installing a totally new system from scratch.

A key feature of the system is Prolec’s all-new intelligent operator interface. It is a smart, rugged touch-screen module featuring outstanding resolution and unambiguous instructions. It is considered by Prolec to be the cornerstone of the PME concept. The unit lets operators and equipment owners enjoy a richer experience with enhanced machine interfaces, better operator feedback, a faster processor, clearer graphics, easier installation and improved reliability.


Brownfield Expo (BEX) plans revealed by Visqueen

As Brownfield Expo (BEX) is around the corner, Visqueen Building Products confirmed its plans for the UK’s premiere exhibition for contaminated land solutions. At the show, which takes place from the 22nd to 24th May at the NEC, the leading manufacturer of building films will promote its ability to offer complete ground gas protection solutions.

In particular, visitors to the Visqueen stand (Stand G51) will be able to learn more about a number of the manufacturer’s technically advanced, highly specialised products. These products - which also act as damp proof membranes - include Visqueen Gas Barrier, Visqueen Low Permeability Gas Membrane and Visqueen Radon Gas Membrane.

A multi-layer reinforced polyethylene membrane with an integral aluminium foil, Visqueen Gas Barrier offers buildings comprehensive protection against the ingression of many of the ground gases frequently found on brownfield sites including methane, radon and carbon dioxide. Coloured blue on one side and silver on the reverse for easy onsite identification, it also offer high levels of strength combined with impressive impact and puncture resistance.

Visqueen Low Permeability Gas Membrane, which has been designed for use where lower levels of methane, radon and carbon dioxide are present, is a robust co-polymer thermoplastic membrane which has recently been BBA certified. Coloured yellow, it is flexible, durable and also employs a centre fold to help reduce the risk of cracks in structural concrete screed and to aid jointing and welding applications on site. Similarly, Visqueen Radon Gas Membrane employs an enhanced blend of polymers and provides specialist and independently tested protection against the ingression of radon. This naturally occurring gas, which is invisible, tasteless and odourless, can be a major cause of lung cancer if concentrated levels are allowed to build up in properties.

In addition, Visqueen will use BEX to promote its ability to complement products like Visqueen Gas Barrier, Visqueen Low Permeability Gas Membrane and Visqueen Radon Membrane with an extensive range of system components. This includes specialised jointing tapes, top hat units and radon sumps giving users the reassurance of being able create a complete gas protection system offering one consistent level of protection.

The manufacturer also plans to stage welding demonstrations on its BEX stand using Visqueen Gas Barrier. This will enable visitors to see first hand one of the best methods of joining two pieces of membrane together to create an effective and impenetrable airtight seal.

Finally, the Visqueen team will use the show to highlight its market leading levels of service and support. This includes access to field based Technical Support Managers and to CPD Gas Seminars which are designed to help specifiers stay abreast of the latest regulations and building controls regarding construction on gas contaminated land.

Speaking of the manufacturer’s plans for the event, Rachael Barton, Marketing Communications Manager at Visqueen said: “With increasing land shortages, there is a growing need to reclaim brownfield sites and to build new properties on them. Visqueen Building Products is proud to help make this process possible.” She adds: “We offer the right products, the right services and the right experience. In fact, we are very much the experts in protecting properties from ground gas ingression and we look forwar


Unique fascia and soffit system in Llandrindod Wells supplied by Drain Center and Alutec

Leading professionals in new fascia and soffit system which are supplied byexpert drainage and utilities products provider, Drain Center in partnership with Alutec, has been installed on the new Combined Services Centre for Police, Fire Brigade and Magistrates’ Court building in Llandrindod Wells.

Drain Center and Alutec, a leading provider of aluminium rainwater guttering, plumbing and drainage systems, worked with architects and project managers to design a bespoke system using cutting edge materials that offered savings on both the material and installation cost, while maintaining the required durability and visual appearance, compared with the originally specified product.

The innovative fascia and soffit system is made from ACP (aluminium composite panels), a sandwich of two thin layers of pre-painted aluminium between a core of recycled polypropylene, achieving a flat and ridged panel.

ACP has a proven track record of over 30 years, having been used as cladding on some of the world’s most prestigious buildings.

The material is kinder to the environment than other comparable materials because the inner core is made from recycled polyethylene and is 100 per cent recyclable at the end of its life.

Traditionally, in order to achieve a flat and ridged panel, soffits and fascias of this size would be made from sheet aluminium 3mm thick and then painted after fabrication. ACP material is pre-painted and uses 65 per cent less aluminium, achieving a 4mm thick ridged, flat and durable material, superior to that of pure sheet aluminium.

Another feature of ACP means although it is fabricated to the required profile at the factory, it can be easily cut, drilled and folded on site, using only traditional carpentry tools. This allows complicated features to be fabricated on site, reducing off site fabrication and dimensional errors.

Steve Carver, regional key account manager at Drain Center, said: “Drain Center, working with Alutec, was delighted to be part of this project. It is a great example of where Drain Center has managed yet again to save the customer a significant amount of money and add value through its extensive list of suppliers.”

Tony Wereszczynski, technical director, Alutec said: “We aren’t aware of any other manufacturer that can offer ACP fascia and soffit systems - we’ve seen them used for rain screens and prestigious building cladding, but not applied like this.

“It has exactly the same durability and longevity of traditional systems, but with the added advantage lower material and installation cost. Alutec’s advantage is that it holds a huge amount of stock, with materials available in nine colours.”

The building will house Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service, Dyfed Powys Police and a Magistrate’s Court. Design work on the building’s fascia and soffit system began 18 months ago and installation finishes this week.


Lytham Smooth Red new addition to the Terca range by Wienerberger

The world’s largest brick manufacturer, Wienerberger, has launched a new red Imperial brick in the Terca range. The Lytham Smooth Red is a plain red brick produced in a 75mm size format.

The new brick, manufactured at Wienerberger’s Denton factory in Manchester has been specifically developed for the repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) market in the north of England, adding to the wide range of RMI products available from the Denton factory and further enhancing the factory’s colour range which now includes pure whites, rich reds, burnt oranges, smooth buffs and a variety of mixed multi stocks.

The Lytham Smooth Red’s deep colour and smooth wirecut finish mirror the traditional use of red bricks across the North and Midlands, particularly in the inner city areas where this style of larger format, flat red finish has been widely used for centuries and is typical of city warehouses and public buildings.

Wienerberger’s Denton factory has been extensively modernised and is now one of the most efficient factories in the UK. It has been at the forefront of the development of Environmental Management Systems within UK brick factories and became the first in the world to be certified to the Environmental Management System standard BS EN ISO 14001. It has gone on to develop systems for reducing waste and ensuring that all process waste is recycled within the manufacturing process. It has also been proactive in the development of products that incorporate recycled raw materials – particularly residues from water treatment plants and other ceramic manufacturing processes, allowing it to market products with high recycled content, which is recognised by the BRE (Building Research Establishment) and WRAP (Waste Resources Action Programme). The factory has also had all of its products certified to the BES 6001 responsible sourcing standard, which gives extra points under the Code for Sustainable Homes, and the Lytham Smooth Red is currently undergoing the accreditation process.


William Dyer Electrical bags Commercial and public sector contracts worth £3million

Leading UK electrical contractor, William Dyer Electrical (UK) Ltd has been awarded contracts for commercial and public sector electrical installations during 2012, worth approximately £3million. The contract wins include direct work with The Manchester College as principal contractor for a project worth approximately £1.5m which will take place over a 16 week period

The work at Shena Simon, part of the The Manchester College includes a complete rewire and boiler replacement; which on completion will boast leading-edge energy efficient electrical installations and technologies. These installations will enable the college to reduce their carbon footprint benefitting the local community, college students and staff base; as well as demonstrating a commitment towards becoming a greener UK.

This project is set to create significant employment opportunities in the North West, a positive outcome as the country announces a ‘double dip recession’. Managing Director William Dyer said: “Being appointed as the principal contractor on the The Manchester College project is fantastic achievement, especially for a project of this scale with such heritage. The Shena Simon Campus is a grade 2 listed building and our installation methods and techniques must be sympathetically executed to ensure that this beautiful building benefits from the installations taking place”.

He went on to say; “The additional projects we have been successful enough to win, give our company a fantastic boost in these tough economic times. We have a team-led approach from apprentice level through to director level. It is this firm commitment, forward thinking, investment in staff and in the business, which gives our clients the confidence to use us time and time again”.

This project has been awarded to William Dyer Electrical (UK) Ltd in addition to a number of nationwide contracts within their core market of energy efficient electrical installations.
Other contract wins include an 18 bedroom extension plus health and fitness facility at Stanley House Hotel, installation projects for World Red Hot Buffet restaurants in Manchester and Nottingham as well as further public sector electrical installations for Lancashire Constabulary with whom William Dyer Electrical has had a longstanding working relationship.


CEMEX helped to reduce costly product damage and waste by Scott Pallets

Scott Pallets, the UK’s expert provider of pallets in the construction products supply-chain and a part of leading industrial supplies organisation, Scott Group, has been working with CEMEX, one of the world’s pioneer cement suppliers to help tackle packaging and transport damage to their products.

CEMEX challenged employees to review critical issues within certain aspects of its supply chain management and develop a new strategy. The key objective was to stem funds being lost through credits to customers due to damage being caused when loading and unloading their products.

Scott Pallets studied the loading footprints of the pallets and found that the majority of the damage was being caused due to the bags not being properly supported to stop the potential of the bags sagging through the top boards of the pallet and subsequently being pierced during fork lift truck transportation.

Using specialist PDS software, Scott Pallets formulated the best layout for the top boards of the pallets to fit the loading foot print. A specification was agreed that best met with requirements and an initial 50 samples were supplied and trialed with some of their major customers. Following positive feedback a full load of the pallets were manufactured and a wider trial was carried out. This pallet is now being used for all CEMEX dispatches.

Commenting on the success of the project, John Dye, Product Development Manager at Scott Pallets, said: “The work we have been doing with Cemex is a strong example of how Scott Pallets can respond to the individual needs of our customers. By zeroing in on key issues we can evaluate supply chain conditions and uncover opportunities for improvement, utilising our bespoke design services and technical knowledge. We are pleased that we could use our expertise to assist Cemex, helping them improve efficiency, customer relations and dispensing with unwanted cost to their business.”

Another of the Scott Group’s divisions, Scott ELM, which specialises in recovering transit packaging, has also been working together with CEMEX for the last couple of years. Whilst there has been success with this project, CEMEX is keen to increase the returned pallet volumes and this has been made a priority project for 2012. Scott ELM and CEMEX are currently working on new initiatives to encourage more of CEMEX’s customers to engage with this environmentally friendly initiative.

National Sales Manager Packed Cement, Graeme Barton, from CEMEX, said “We are delighted with the improvements delivered by Scott Pallets. One of our key objectives for 2011 was to reduce refunds being given to customers due to packing and transport damage of our products. Scott Pallets took time to assess our situation coming back with a solution that really worked. We are now keen to continue with improvements to our supply chain by encouraging our customers to return used pallets, through Scott ELM.”

The Scott Group was established in 1987 as a family-run sawmill and today employs over 1000 people UK-wide. The business is committed to ensuring customers are at the forefront of the latest industry developments and thrives on finding the most effective solutions for customers with the aim of providing quality products and a professional, straight-talking service at a competitive price.

Most recently, the Scott Group launched a new division: ‘Scott Pooling Solutions’, which offers sustainable pallet pooling services specifically designed around customers’ needs and challenges when it comes to the safe handling and delivery of their products in the supply chain. By implementing a customer focused, consultative approach to pallet pooling, this new service brings something completely new to the market.


Housing development for Aberdeen City Council completed by Robertson

Infrastructure, support services and construction group- Robertson, has finished the new phase of Aberdeen City Council’s new-build council housing programme, with tenants already moved in and delighting in their new homes.

The Marchburn Park development comprises 18 two-bedroom flats and 17 three-bedroom houses and is conveniently located within walking distance of amenities, transport links and local schools. Robertson constructed Marchburn Park’s 35 properties on schedule, within budget and to specification.

Robertson was awarded the contract following a rigorous tender process. The project has created inspirational 21st century homes that are sustainable and energy efficient.

John McHardy, Regional Business Development Director from Robertson, said: “The Marchburn development has created 35 energy efficient, family homes with the highest standards of finish. We worked closely with Aberdeen City Council Housing Officers to design these houses to the highest standards.

“We are experts in sustainable design and construction and we’ve incorporated a number of features to ensure the houses are as environmentally efficient as possible, such as high levels of insulation, air-tightness and solar panels and efficient heating systems. These design features will reduce the cost of household energy bills for residents by approximately 80% compared with a traditional council house in the city.”

A key feature of the Robertson-built homes at Marchburn Park is the incorporation of renewable energy sources to reduce the overall running costs of the properties. In addition to insulation and efficient heating systems, Robertson incorporated a range of features to the development, including:
-orientation of housing and site layout – south-facing where possible;

-simplicity of design - design floor plan layouts for efficiency;

-use of modern methods of construction - timber framed structure for speed / ease of construction;

-use of materials with a low environmental impact - materials with low embodied energy or sourced locally.

-use of airtight construction - building papers overlap and windows received additional attention, in order to maximise heat retention and reduce heating bills;

-low volatile organic compound paints and recycled materials used wherever possible.

Marchburn Park has been developed as a Homezone scheme with a courtyard layout. Homezones aim to change the way streets are used by making them places for people, not just traffic, so that the needs of car drivers are secondary to the needs of users of the street. It works to limit the volume and speed of traffic while creating places for residents to gather and play.

Pete Leonard, Aberdeen City Council Director of Housing and Environment said: “This is another important milestone in our new-build council housing programme and I am delighted to hear that the work is now completed and tenants are moving in. I have been very impressed with the high standard of work involved in all phases of this programme and I am sure the new tenants at Marchburn will agree.”

Robertson are also constructing a further phase of Aberdeen City Council’s new-build programme which comprises 31 properties at Oldcroft Gardens, Stockethill and this project is also nearing completion.

Aberdeen City Council’s new-build programme is funded by the council’s housing revenue account and £3,030,000 of funding from the Scottish Government's Incentivising New Council House Building scheme.


Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Wooden House Guangzhou 2012

The 4th Guangzhou Wooden House and Wooden Structure Fair
The largest specialized exhibition on wooden structure in China

March 9th -11th, 2012
China Import & Export Fair Pazhou Complex Area B, Guangzhou China

Brief Intro
There is no place like Wooden House Guangzhou where you can meet major Chinese wooden house manufacturers under one roof and enable you to experience the wood building industry grow in leaps and bounds.

Wooden House Guangzhou, the largest specialized exhibition on wooden house and wooden structure sector in China, definitely a pretty fabulous event for world’s wooden house professionals to exchanging ideas and a one-stop platform for participates to develop this emerging market.

Post Show Figures
Exhibitors: 107
Overseas Exhibitors: 15
Domestic Exhibitors: 92
Number of Countries: 7
Net Exhibiting Area: 9,900 m2
Visitors: 7,142
Overseas Visitors: 308
Domestic Visitors: 6,834

Visitors we will invite
Agents/dealers of wooden house mainly from China
Wooden house manufacturers
Members from associations of forest/lumber
End buyers from resort, Tourism, real estate, Tourist attractions investor
Investment and Consultant Companies in wood industry
Delegates from trade promotion organizations/ embassy/government agencies
What will exhibit at Wooden House Guangzhou?
All Kinds of wooden houses
Landscape and outdoor wooden structures
Building Materials for wooden house
Processing & manufactured equipment for wooden house
Components & Accessories for Wooden Structure

Notes for visitors
This is a trade only fair, free of charge for registered visitors. Please Email us for your visitors’ badges.
Your company name and passport number if you need us to send you an invitation letter for visa.


China International Concrete Technology &Equipment Exhibition 2012 (CTEE2012)

China International Municipal Equipment Expo 2012& China International Concrete Technology &Equipment Exhibition 2012 (CTEE2012) will be held in China Import and Export Fair Pazhou Complex Area B during March 9th-11th, 2012, which is the most professional construction exhibition in China. All kinds of latest products and technology will be on display in CTEE2012. CTEE2012 will gather both in China and abroad brands to join and invite more professional persons to come and exchange idea of new products, technology and industry developing trend. CTEE2012 is a best communication platform for purchasers and manufacturers. China municipal industry is in a good period and attaches great importance to new technology and equipments. The 12th Five-Year Plan indicates that China will continue to increase the investment in urban construction of infrastructural facilities. Thus, the engineering machinery industry will meet a new opportunity.
We are looking forward to your participation.


Hudson’s formula and Van der Meer formula are commonly used in the design of armour. Which one is a better choice?

Hudson’s formula is commonly adopted in preliminary design to obtain rough initial estimate of rock size. The formula is derived from the results of regular wave tests. However, this formula does not take into account the following elements which Van der Meer formula does: wave period, damage level, permeability of structure and storm duration. Moreover, Hudson’s formula deals with the use of regular waves only.

Compared with Hudson’s formula, Van der Meer formula is more complicated and it is derived from results of a series of physical model tests. They include the consideration of wave period, storm duration, clearly-defined damage level and permeability of structure. The choice of the appropriate formula is dependent on the design purpose (i.e. preliminary design or detailed design).

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.


Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge also popularly known as the Pearl Bridge, has the longest central span of any suspension bridge. The central span is staggering 1,991 metres (6,532 ft) making it a truly marvelous civil engineer wonder. Located in Japan, Akashi Kaikyo Bridge was completed in 1998 with the purpose of linking the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honsho to Iwaya on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait.

Construction Details
Central span – 1,991 metres (6,532 ft)
Steel – 181,000 tonnes ( It is said that total stell cable used in this bridge could encircle the entire world 7 times.)
Workers – 2 Million
Time- 10 years
Concrete – 1.4 million cubic metres

The bridge is constructed by using two main cables which strech between two towers. The road is supported by other cables which are eventually tied up with main cables. Two large anchor blocks on either end support this gigantic structure.


Civil Engineering Home

Engineering is a term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of the materials and forces of nature. Engineers are the ones who have received professional training in pure and applied science.Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes.

Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields. Civil engineering focuses on the infrastructure of the world which include Water works, Sewers, Dams, Power Plants, Transmission Towers/Lines, Railroads, Highways, Bridges, Tunnels, Irrigation Canals, River Navigation, Shipping Canals, Traffic Control, Mass Transit, Airport Runways, Terminals, Industrial Plant Buildings, Skyscrapers, etc. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering, and coastal and ocean engineering.

Civil engineers build the world’s infrastructure. In doing so, they quietly shape the history of nations around the world. Most people can not imagine life without the many contributions of civil engineers to the public’s health, safety and standard of living. Only by exploring civil engineering’s influence in shaping the world we know today, can we creatively envision the progress of our tomorrows.


What are the Number of Connectors Required for Building Construction?

Total number of connectors required to resist Vh is given by Vh/q
where q is the allowable shear for one connector, kip (kN) and its value is given in structural design guides.

Some keypoints should be considered
1. Required number of shear connectors should be placed uniformly in the section having zero to maximum moment.
2. Shear Connectors should have a minimum of 25.4mm (1inch) of concrete cover in all the directions.
3) Stud diameter should not exceed 2.5 times the beam-flange thickness. ( May increase only if studs are located directly over the web)

In case of heavy concentrated loads, uniform spacing may not sufficient, so number of shear connectors are calculated as
N2={N1[MB/Mmax-1]}/ (B-1)
M= Moment at concentrated load, ft-kip(kN-m)
Mmax= Maximum moment in span ft-kip(kN-m)
N1= Number of shear connectors required between Mmaxand zero moment
B= Str/Ss or Seff/Ss depending on condition.
Seff= Effective section modulus for partial composite action in inch3(mm3)


What is the Shear on Connectors?

We take the smaller value out of these two conditions to calculate the total horizontal shear which is to be to be resisted by the shear connectors in building construction
Vh= 0.85f‘cAc/2
Vh=As Fy/2
Vh = Total horizontal shear, kip (kN), between maximum positive moment and each end of steel beams (or between point of maximum positive moment and point of contraflexure in continuous beam)
f‘c= Specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days, ksi (MPa)
Ac = Actual area of effective concrete flange in inch2(mm2)
As = Area of steel beam in inch2(mm2)

In continuous composite construction, the total horizontal shear, kip (kN), between an interior support and each adjacent point of contraflexure should calculated by

Vh = AsrFyr/2

Asr= Area of longitudinal reinforcement at support within effective area in ich2(mm2 );
Fyr= Specified minimum yield stress of longitudinal reinforcement, ksi (MPa).


What are the Ponding Considerations In Buildings?

Those flat roof which face a problem of water accumulation require stability analysis under ponding conditions. For checking the stability we need to see the following equations, if both of these are fulfilled

Cp+0.9Cs<= 0.25
C p= 32 Ls L4p/107Ip
Lp= Length of primarymember or girder in ft (m)
Ls= Length of secondary member or purlin ft (m)
S= Spacing of secondary members ft (m)
Ip= Moment of inertia of primary member in in4 mm4
Is= Moment of inertia of secondary member in in4 mm4
I d= Moment of inertia of steel deck supported on secondary members, in4/ft (mm4/m)

It should be noted that Is should be decreased by 15% for trusses and other open-web members. Also the value of the total bending stress due to ponding , dead loads and live loads should not exceed 0.80Fy(the minimum specified yield stress for the steel)


Low Cost Housing

Low Cost Housing is a new concept which deals with effective budgeting and following of techniques which help in reducing the cost construction through the use of locally available materials along with improved skills and technology without sacrificing the strength, performance and life of the structure.There is huge misconception that low cost housing is suitable for only sub standard works and they are constructed by utilizing cheap building materials of low quality.The fact is that Low cost housing is done by proper management of resources.Economy is also achieved by postponing finishing works or implementing them in phases.

Building Cost
The building construction cost can be divided into two parts namely:
Building material cost : 65 to 70 %
Labour cost : 65 to 70 %
Now in low cost housing, building material cost is less because we make use of the locally available materials and also the labour cost can be reduced by properly making the time schedule of our work. Cost of reduction is achieved by selection of more efficient material or by an improved design.

Areas from where cost can be reduced are:-
1) Reduce plinth area by using thinner wall concept.Ex.15 cms thick solid concrete block wall.

2) Use locally available material in an innovative form like soil cement blocks in place of burnt brick.

3) Use energy efficiency materials which consumes less energy like concrete block in place of burnt brick.

4) Use environmentally friendly materials which are substitute for conventional building components like use R.C.C. Door and window frames in place of wooden frames.

5) Preplan every component of a house and rationalize the design procedure for reducing the size of the component in the building.

6) By planning each and every component of a house the wastage of materials due to demolition of the unplanned component of the house can be avoided.

7) Each component of the house shall be checked whether if it’s necessary, if it is not necessary, then that component should not be used.

Cost reduction through adhoc methods
Normally the foundation cost comes to about 10 to 15% of the total building and usually foundation depth of 3 to 4 ft. is adopted for single or double store building and also the concrete bed of 6″(15 Cms.) is used for the foundation which could be avoided.

It is recommended to adopt a foundation depth of 2 ft.(0.6m) for normal soil like gravely soil, red soils etc., and use the uncoursed rubble masonry with the bond stones and good packing. Similarly the foundation width is rationalized to 2 ft.(0.6m).To avoid cracks formation in foundation the masonry shall be thoroughly packed with cement mortar of 1:8 boulders and bond stones at regular intervals.
It is further suggested adopt arch foundation in ordinary soil for effecting reduction in construction cost up to 40%.This kind of foundation will help in bridging the loose pockets of soil which occurs along the foundation.

In the case black cotton and other soft soils it is recommend to use under ream pile foundation which saves about 20 to 25% in cost over the conventional method of construction.

It is suggested to adopt 1 ft. height above ground level for the plinth and may be constructed with a cement mortar of 1:6. The plinth slab of 4 to 6″ which is normally adopted can be avoided and in its place brick on edge can be used for reducing the cost. By adopting this procedure the cost of plinth foundation can be reduced by about 35 to 50%.It is necessary to take precaution of providing impervious blanket like concrete slabs or stone slabs all round the building for enabling to reduce erosion of soil and thereby avoiding exposure of foundation surface and crack formation.

Wall thickness of 6 to 9″ is recommended for adoption in the construction of walls all-round the building and 41/2 ” for inside walls. It is suggested to use burnt bricks which are immersed in water for 24 hours and then shall be used for the walls

Rat – trap bond wall
It is a cavity wall construction with added advantage of thermal comfort and reduction in the quantity of bricks required for masonry work. By adopting this method of bonding of brick masonry compared to traditional English or Flemish bond masonry, it is possible to reduce in the material cost of bricks by 25% and about 10to 15% in the masonry cost. By adopting rat-trap bond method one can create aesthetically pleasing wall surface and plastering can be avoided.

Concrete block walling
In view of high energy consumption by burnt brick it is suggested to use concrete block (block hollow and solid) which consumes about only 1/3 of the energy of the burnt bricks in its production. By using concrete block masonry the wall thickness can be reduced from 20 cms to 15 Cms. Concrete block masonry saves mortar consumption, speedy construction of wall resulting in higher output of labour, plastering can be avoided thereby an overall saving of 10 to 25% can be achieved.

Soil cement block technology
It is an alternative method of construction of walls using soil cement blocks in place of burnt bricks masonry. It is an energy efficient method of construction where soil mixed with 5% and above cement and pressed in hand operated machine and cured well and then used in the masonry. This masonry doesn’t require plastering on both sides of the wall. The overall economy that could be achieved with the soil cement technology is about 15 to 20% compared to conventional method of construction.

Doors and windows
It is suggested not to use wood for doors and windows and in its place concrete or steel section frames shall be used for achieving saving in cost up to 30 to 40%.Similiarly for shutters commercially available block boards, fibre or wooden practical boards etc., shall be used for reducing the cost by about 25%.By adopting brick jelly work and precast components effective ventilation could be provided to the building and also the construction cost could be saved up to 50% over the window components.

Lintals and Chajjas
The traditional R.C.C. lintels which are costly can be replaced by brick arches for small spans and save construction cost up to 30 to 40% over the traditional method of construction. By adopting arches of different shapes a good architectural pleasing appearance can be given to the external wall surfaces of the brick masonry.

Normally 5″(12.5 cms) thick R.C.C. slabs is used for roofing of residential buildings. By adopting rationally designed insitu construction practices like filler slab and precast elements the construction cost of roofing can be reduced by about 20 to 25%.

Filler slabs
They are normal RCC slabs where bottom half (tension) concrete portions are replaced by filler materials such as bricks, tiles, cellular concrete blocks, etc.These filler materials are so placed as not to compromise structural strength, result in replacing unwanted and nonfunctional tension concrete, thus resulting in economy. These are safe, sound and provide aesthetically pleasing pattern ceilings and also need no plaster.

For more on filler materials check Filler Materials Used in Concrete

Jack arch roof/floor
They are easy to construct, save on cement and steel, are more appropriate in hot climates. These can be constructed using compressed earth blocks also as alternative to bricks for further economy.

Ferrocement channel/shell unit
Provide an economic solution to RCC slab by providing 30 to 40% cost reduction on floor/roof unit over RCC slabs without compromising the strength. These being precast, construction is speedy, economical due to avoidance of shuttering and facilitate quality control.

Finishing Work
The cost of finishing items like sanitary, electricity, painting etc., varies depending upon the type and quality of products used in the building and its cost reduction is left to the individual choice and liking.

The above list of suggestion for reducing construction cost is of general nature and it varies depending upon the nature of the building to be constructed, budget of the owner, geographical location where the house is to be constructed, availability of the building material, good construction management practices etc. However it is necessary that good planning and design methods shall be adopted by utilizing the services of an experienced engineer or an architect for supervising the work, thereby achieving overall cost effectiveness to the extent of 25% in actual practice.

 More Entries :


Friday, May 25, 2012

Civil Engineering Estimates

An estimate is a calculation of the quantities of various items of work, and the expenses likely to be incurred there on. The total of these probable expenses to be incurred on the work is known as estimated cost of the work. The estimated cost of a work is a close approximation of its actual cost.

The agreement of the estimated cost with the actual cost will depend on accurate use of estimating methods and correct visualization of the work, as it will be done. Importance of correct estimating is obvious.Under-estimating may result in the client getting an unpleasant shock when tenders are opened and drastically modifying or abandoning the work at that stage. Over-estimating may lose the engineer or estimator his client or his job, or in any case his confidence.

Estimating is the most important of the practical aspects of construction management, and the subject deserves the closest attention of one aspiring to a career in the profession. It is a comparatively simple subject to understand; however, as it brings one up against practical work, methods and procedure, knowledge of it cannot be acquired without close application.

.Purpose of Estimating:

To give a reasonably accurate idea of the cost
An estimate is necessary to give the owner a reasonably accurate idea of the cost to help him decide whether the work can be undertaken as proposed or needs to be curtailed or abandoned, depending upon the availability of funds and prospective direct and indirect benefits. For government works proper sanction has to be obtained for allocating the required amount. Works are often let out on a lump sum basis, in which case the Estimator must be in a position to know exactly how much expenditure he is going to incur on them
1. Estimating Materials
From the estimate of a work it is possible to determine what materials and in what quantities will be required for the work so that the arrangements to procure them can be made.
2. Estimating Labor
The number and kind of workers of different categories who will have to be employed to complete the work in the specified time can be found out from the estimate.
3. Estimating Plant
An estimate will help in determining amount and kind of equipment needed to complete the work.
4. Estimating Time
The estimate of a work and the past experience enable one to estimate quite closely the length of time required to complete an item of work or the work as a whole.
Whereas the importance of knowing the probable cost needs no emphasis, estimating materials, labor, plant and time is immensely useful in planning and execution of any work.

. Types of Construction Estimates:

There are several kinds of estimating techniques; these can be grouped into two main categories

1. Approximate estimates
2. Detailed estimates

1. Approximate Estimates
An approximate estimate is an approximate or rough estimate prepared to obtain an approximate cost in a short time. For certain purposes the use of such methods is justified.

2. Detailed Estimate
A detailed estimate of the cost of a project is prepared by determining the quantities and costs of every thing that a contractor is required to provide and do for the satisfactory completion of the work. It is the best and most reliable form of estimate. A detailed estimate may be prepared in the following two ways

(a). Unit quantity method
(b). Total quantity method.

(a) Unit Quantity Method
In the unit quantity method, the work is divided into as many operations or items as are required. A unit of measurement is decided. The total quantity of work under each item is taken out in the proper unit of measurement. The total cost per unit quantity of each item is analyzed and worked out. Then the total cost for the item is found by multiplying the cost per unit quantity by the number of units. For example, while estimating the cost of a building work, the quantity of brickwork in the building would be measured in cubic meters. The total cost (which includes cost of materials. labor, plant, overheads and profit) per cubic meter of brickwork would be found and then this unit cost multiplied by the number of cubic meters of brickwork in the building would give the estimated cost of brickwork.
This method has the advantage that the unit costs on various jobs can be readily compared and that the total estimate can easily be corrected for variations in quantities.

(b) Total Quantity Method
In the total quantity method, an item of work is divided into the following five subdivisions:
(I) Materials
(II) Labor
(III) Plant
(IV) Overheads
(V) Profit.

The total quantities of each kind or class of material or labor are found and multiplied by their individual unit cost. Similarly, the cost of plant, overhead expenses and profit are determined.

Qualifications of an Estimator

A good estimator should possess the following quantifications:
1. A thorough understanding of architectural drawings.
2. A sound knowledge of building materials, construction methods and customs prevailing in the trade.
3. A fund of information collected or gained through experience in construction work, relating to materials required, hourly output of workers and plant, overhead expenses and costs of all kinds.
4. An understanding of a good method of preparing an estimate.
5. A systematic and orderly mind.
6. Ability to do careful and accurate calculations.
7.Ability to collect, classify and evaluate data that would be useful in estimating.

Good instruction or careful and thorough study of a standard book will help a beginner to become a good estimator. He must, however, try to develop all the above mentioned qualities while obtaining practical experience.


Structural Concrete: Theory & Design-Free Download

Structural Concrete: Theory and Design
New edition helps students make the bridge from concepts to problem-solving.
The Fourth Edition of Structural Concrete: Theory and Design brings this text fully up to date while maintaining its acclaimed easy-to-follow, logical approach. Working with the text’s numerous step-by-step examples, students quickly grasp the principles and techniques of analyzing and designing reinforced and prestressed concrete elements. Moreover, the authors’ emphasis on a top quality, economical approach helps students design concrete structures and members with confidence.
Fully updated and revised, the Fourth Edition features:
* Latest coverage reflecting the ACI 318-08 code
* Seismic design chapter incorporates the latest of the International Building Code (IBC 2006)
* AASHTO method for predicting concrete creep and shrinkage
* New chapter dedicated to the design of curved beams
* SI unit examples, equivalent conversion factors from customary units to SI units, and SI unit design tables
Practical problems in each chapter enable students to apply and assess their knowledge as they advance through the text. The text’s companion Web site gives students more opportunities to apply their knowledge, with such features as MS Excel spreadsheets that offer an interactive environment for evaluating different design aspects of concrete members.
This text is an outgrowth of the two authors’ lecture notes, reflecting more than twenty-five years of both classroom teaching and industrial experience. It is structured to cover a two-course sequence on the design of reinforced concrete structures as well as provide a comprehensive up-to-date reference for practicing engineers.
Table of Contents
Conversion Factors.
1. Introduction.
1.1 Structural Concrete.
1.2 Historical Background.
1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete.
1.4 Codes of Practice.
1.5 Design Philosophy and Concepts.
1.6 Units of Measurement.
1.7 Loads.
1.8 Safety Provisions.
1.9 Structural Concrete Elements.
1.10 Structural Concrete Design.
1.11 Accuracy of Calculations.
1.12 Concrete High-Rise Buildings.
2. Properties of Reinforced Concrete.
2.1 Factors Affecting the Strength of Concrete.
2.2 Compressive Strength.
2.3 Stress-Strain Curves of Concrete.
2.4 Tensile Strength of Concrete.
2.5 Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete.
2.6 Shear Strength.
2.7 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete.
2.8 Poisson’s Ratio.
2.9 Shear Modulus.
2.10 Modular Ratio.
2.11 Volume Changes of Concrete.
2.12 Creep.
2.13 Models for Predicting the Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete.
2.14 Unit Weight of Concrete.
2.15 Fire Resistance.
2.16 High-Performance Concrete.
2.17 Lightweight Concrete.
2.18 Fibrous Concrete.
2.19 Steel Reinforcement.
3. Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Assumptions.
3.3 Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure.
3.4 Types of Flexural Failure and Strain Limits
3.5 Load Factors.
3.6 Strength-Reduction Factor _.
3.7 Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions.
3.8 Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution
3.9 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending.
3.10 Lower Limit or Minimum Percentage of Steel.
3.11 Adequacy of Sections.
3.12 Bundled Bars.
3.13 Sections in the Transition Region.
3.14 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement
3.15 Analysis of T- and I-Sections.
3.16 Dimensions of Isolated T-Shaped Sections.
3.17 Inverted L-Shaped Sections.
3.18 Sections of Other Shapes.
3.19 Analysis of Sections Using Tables.
3.20 Additional Examples.
3.21 Examples Using SI Units.
4. Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Rectangular Sections with Reinforcement Only.
4.3 Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover.
4.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement.
4.5 Design of T-Sections.
4.6 Additional Examples.
4.7 Examples Using SI Units.
5. Alternative Design Methods.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Load Factors.
5.3 Strength-Reduction Factor,.
5.4 Rectangular Sections with Tension Reinforcement.
5.5 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement.
5.6 Design of T-Sections.
5.7 Strut and Tie Method.
6. Deflection and Control of Cracking.
6.1 Deflection of Structural Concrete Members.
6.2 Instantaneous Deflection.
6.3 Long-Time Deflection.
6.4 Allowable Deflection.
6.5 Deflection Due to Combinations of Loads.
6.6 Cracks in Flexural Members.
6.7 ACI Code Requirements.
7. Development Length of Reinforcing Bars.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Development of Bond Stresses.
7.3 Development Length in Tension.
7.4 Development Length in Compression.
7.5 Summary of the Computation of ld in Tension.
7.6 Critical Sections in Flexural Members.
7.7 Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 12.5 and 7.1).
7.8 Splices of Reinforcement.
7.9 Moment-Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points).
8. Shear and Diagonal Tension.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams.
8.3 Behavior of Beams Without Shear Reinforcement.
8.4 Moment Effect on Shear Strength.
8.5 Beams with Shear Reinforcement.
8.6 ACI Code Shear Design Requirements.
8.7 Design of Vertical Stirrups.
8.8 Design Summary.
8.9 Shear Force Due to Live Loads.
8.10 Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth.
8.11 Deep Flexural Members.
8.12 Examples Using SI Units.
9. One-Way Slabs.
9.1 Types of Slabs.
9.2 Design of One-Way Solid Slabs.
9.3 Design Limitations According to the ACI Code.
9.4 Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement.
9.5 Reinforcement Details.
9.6 Distribution of Loads from One-Way Slabs to Supporting Beams.
9.7 One-Way Joist Floor System.
10. Axially Loaded Columns.
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Types of Columns.
10.3 Behavior of Axially Loaded Columns.
10.4 ACI Code Limitations.
10.5 Spiral Reinforcement.
10.6 Design Equations.
10.7 Axial Tension.
10.8 Long Columns.
11. Members in Compression and Bending.
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 Design Assumptions for Columns.
11.3 Load-Moment Interaction Diagram.
11.4 Safety Provisions.
11.5 Balanced Condition-Rectangular Sections.
11.6 Column Sections Under Eccentric Loading.
11.7 Strength of Columns for Tension Failure.
11.8 Strength of Columns for Compression Failure.
11.9 Interaction Diagram Example.
11.10 Rectangular Columns with Side Bars.
11.11 Load Capacity of Circular Columns.
11.12 Analysis and Design of Columns Using Charts.
11.13 Design of Columns Under Eccentric Loading.
11.14 Biaxial Bending.
11.15 Circular Columns with Uniform Reinforcement Under Biaxial Bending.
11.16 Square and Rectangular Columns Under Biaxial Bending.
11.17 Parme Load Contour Method.
11.18 Equation of Failure Surface.
11.19 SI Examples.
12. Slender Columns.
12.1 Introduction.
12.2 Effective Column Length (Klu).
12.3 Effective Length Factor (K).
12.4 Member Stiffness (EI).
12.5 Limitation of the Slenderness Ratio (Klu /r).
12.6 Moment-Magnifier Design Method.
13. Footings.
13.1 Introduction.
13.2 Types of Footings.
13.3 Distribution of Soil Pressure.
13.4 Design Considerations.
13.5 Plain Concrete Footings.
13.6 Combined Footings
13.7 Footings Under Eccentric Column Loads.
13.8 Footings Under Biaxial Moment.
13.9 Slabs on Ground.
13.10 Footings on Piles
13.11 SI Equations.
14. Retaining Walls.
14.1 Introduction.
14.2 Types of Retaining Walls.
14.3 Forces on Retaining Walls.
14.4 Active and Passive Soil Pressures.
14.5 Effect of Surcharge.
14.6 Friction on the Retaining Wall Base.
14.7 Stability Against Overturning.
14.8 Proportions of Retaining Walls.
14.9 Design Requirements.
14.10 Drainage.
14.11 Basement Walls.
15. Design for Torsion.
15.1 Introduction.
15.2 Torsional Moments in Beams.
15.3 Torsional Stresses.
15.4 Torsional Moment in Rectangular Sections.
15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion.
15.6 Torsion Theories for Concrete Members.
15.7 Torsional Strength of Plain Concrete Members.
15.8 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members (ACI Code Procedure).
15.9 Summary of ACI Code Procedures.
16. Continuous Beams and Frames.
16.1 Introduction.
16.2 Maximum Moments in Continuous Beams.
16.3 Building Frames.
16.4 Portal Frames.
16.5 General Frames.
16.6 Design of Frame Hinges.
16.7 Introduction to Limit Design.
16.8 The Collapse Mechanism.
16.9 Principles of Limit Design.
16.10 Upper and Lower Bounds of Load Factors.
16.11 Limit Analysis.
16.12 Rotation of Plastic Hinges.
16.13 Summary of Limit Design Procedure.
16.14 Moment Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Beams.
17. Design of Two-Way Slabs.
17.1 Introduction.
17.2 Types of Two-Way Slabs.
17.3 Economical Choice of Concrete Floor Systems.
17.4 Design Concepts.
17.5 Column and Middle Strips
17.6 Minimum Slab Thickness to Control Deflection.
17.7 Shear Strength of Slabs.
17.8 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs by the Direct Design Method.
17.9 Design Moments in Columns.
17.10 Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to Columns.
17.11 Waffle Slabs.
17.12 Equivalent Frame Method.
18. Stairs.
18.1 Introduction.
18.2 Types of Stairs.
18.3 Examples.
19. Introduction to Prestressed Concrete.
19.1 Prestressed Concrete.
19.2 Materials and Serviceability Requirements.
19.3 Loss of Prestress.
19.4 Analysis of Flexural Members.
19.5 Design of Flexural Members.
19.6 Cracking Moment.
19.7 Deflection.
19.8 Design for Shear.
19.9 Preliminary Design of Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members.
19.10 End-Block Stresses.
20. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures.
20.1 Introduction.
20.2 Seismic Design Category.
20.3 Analysis Procedures.
20.4 Load Combinations.
20.5 Special Requirements in Design of Structures Subjected to the
Earthquake Loads.
Codes and Design References.
21. Beams Curved in Plan
21.1 Introduction .
21.2 Uniformly Loaded Circular Beams .
21.3 Semicircular Beam Fixed at End Supports .
21.4 Fixed-End Semicircular Beam Under Uniform Loading .
21.5 Circular Beam Subjected to Uniform Loading.
21.6 Circular Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Load at Midspan .
21.7 V-Shaped Beams Subjected to Uniform Loading .
21.8 V-Shaped Beams Subjected to a Concentrated Load at the Centerline of the Beam .
Appendix A: Design Tables (U.S. Customary Units).
Appendix B: Design Tables (SI Units).
Appendix C: Structural AIDS.
Author Information
M. Nadim Hassoun, PhD, PE, FASCE, FICE, MACI, is Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at South Dakota State University.
Akthem Al-Manaseer, PhD, PEng, FASCE, FACI, FCSCE, MIstructE, is Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at San Jose State University.


  © Blogger templates Psi by 2008

Back to TOP